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DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijfsa.2020.12.002

Abiotic Stresses and Their Effects on Plant Growth, Yield and Nutritional Quality of Agricultural Produce

Suresh Kumar

Division of Biochemistry, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, India.

*Corresponding author: Suresh Kumar

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Date: October 14,2020 Hits: 204, How to cite this paper

Abstract

Abiotic stresses, like extreme temperature, drought, flood, salinity, and heavy metals, are some of the major factors that limit crop productivity and quality. Abiotic stresses considerably affect the growth, development, and productivity of crop plants, such adverse environmental conditions may reduce the performance of the crop with reduced yield from 50% to 70%. Emission of greenhouse gases from different sources is believed to be one of the factors responsible for the gradual increase in the global ambient temperature (global warming). Global warming has also changed the precipitation pattern and contributing to erratic drought/flood stress. Abiotic stresses, particularly drought and heat stress, during the vegetative and reproductive stage of growth adversely affect biomass, grain yield, and quality of the produce. A combination of abiotic stresses, for example, drought and heat, have much greater effects on the yield and quality of the produce. However, responses of plants to these stresses may vary across the species, as well as at different developmental stages. Scarcity of water (drought) and higher temperature induces the stress-associated metabolic responses, and stomatal closure significantly decreases the uptake of CO2. As a result, the reduction equivalents (e.g. NADPH + H+) for CO2 fixation via the Calvin cycle declines considerably. Not only the photosynthetic process but also the biosynthetic processes involved in proteins, lipids, and minerals metabolism are affectedby adaptive responses. As a consequence of these metabolic shifts, carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and mineral compositions are significantly affected by the abiotic stresses. Although the effects of abiotic stress on the yield of cereals and grain legumes are relatively well-understood, further research on the combined effects of abiotic stresses, abiotic and biotic stresses, and their effects on crop yield and nutritional quality of the produce needs to be undertaken. Molecular genetics of the stress responses and the tolerance mechanisms are likely to pave the way forward in developing crop plants that can withstand and give economic yield under the abiotic stresses.

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Abiotic Stresses and Their Effects on Plant Growth, Yield and Nutritional Quality of Agricultural Produce
How to cite this paper: Suresh Kumar. (2020) Abiotic Stresses and Their Effects on Plant Growth, Yield and Nutritional Quality of Agricultural ProduceInternational Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture4(4), 367-378.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijfsa.2020.12.002

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