Hill Publishing Group | contact@hillpublisher.com

Hill Publishing Group

Location:Home / Journals / International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture /

DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijfsa.2020.12.005

Present Status of Erwinia amylovora in the Republic of North Macedonia

Date: October 22,2020 |Hits: 359 Download PDF How to cite this paper

S. Mitrev *, B. Kovacevik, E. Arsov

Faculty of Agriculture, Goce Delcev University, Stip, Republic of North Macedonia.

*Corresponding author: S. Mitrev

Abstract

This study aims to give an overview of the status of Erwinia amylovora, isolated from pear (Pyrus communis), wild pear (Pyrus pyraster), apple (Malus silvestris), and quince trees (Cydonia oblonga) from different localities in the Republic of North Macedonia, for the period 2015-2019. Classical biochemical analyses coupled to modern molecular diagnostic tools such as PCR and Real Time PCR were used for the determination of bacteria. Symptomatic fruit trees were noticed in almost all investigated localities in Republic of North Macedonia. The most expressed symptoms were recorded during the intensive growth of the shoots. Isolated strains elicited HR in tobacco, necrosis of pear seedlings, and immature pear fruits. Strains possess typical biochemical characteristics com-pared with the positive control, such as non-fluorescent, anaerobic (oxidase neg-ative), levan production, and catalase enzymatic activity, doesn’t hydrolyze gelatine, aesculin, and starch, produce acid from sucrose, fructose, and galactose, etc. Amplification of the total bacterial DNA originating from apple, pear, wild pear, and quince trees using PCR followed by agarose electrophoresis, showed that PCR patterns for all investigated native strains are identical to the European reference strain (LMG 1883). TaqMan qPCR was used to quantify E. amylovora DNA from different host plants and locations, during the investigated period. The results indicate that the disease incidence is sporadic and crop damages are of medium economic significance. E. amylovora in the Republic of North Macedonia was identified as a causal agent of fire blight on pear, wild pear, apple, and quince trees in young and old fruit orchards.

References

[1] Bonn, W. G., Van der Zwet T. (2000). Distribution and economic importance of fire blight. In J. L. Vanneste (Ed.), Fire blight the disease and its causative agent, Erwinia amylovora. Wallingford: CABI Publishing, UK, pp. 37-53.

[2] Sanin, M., Misirli, A., Ozaktan, H. (2020). Determination of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) susceptibility in Turkey’s Cydonia oblonga Mill. Germplasm. European Journal of Plant Pathology, volume 157, pp. 227-237.

[3] Uyeda, E. (1903). On the Causal Bacteria of Fire Bight of apple. Dai-Nippon Nokai-ho, 260: 1-3. (In Japanese).

[4] Smith, H. and Lattimore, R. (1997). The search for rules for non tariff barriers: fire blight of apples. International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium (IATRC) Meeting, San Diego, CA, USA, December 14–16, 1997. [online]. [http://researcharchive.lincoln.ac.nz/dspace/ bitstream/10182/872/1/cd_dp_44 .pdf].

[5] Longstroth, M. (2000). The 2000 fireblight epidemic in southwest Michigan. Michigan State University—extension, Van Buren County. http://www.canr.msu.edu/vanburen/fbdam.htm#5yrloss [accessed 12 May 2008].

[6] Gwynne, D. C. (1984). Fire blight in perry pears and cider apples in the South West of England. Acta Horticulturae, 151: 41-47.

[7] Thomson, S. V. (2000). Integrated orchard and nursery management for the control of fire blight. In: Fire blight the disease and its causative agent, Erwinia amylovora [ed. by Vanneste JL] Wallingford, UK: CABI, 9-36.

[8] Crosse, J. E., Bennett, M., and Garrett, C. M. E. (1958). Fire blight on pear in England. Nature, 182: 1530-1530.

[9] Mitrev, S. (1993). Proučavanjebakterije Erwinia amyiovora (Burrill 1882) Winslow et al. 1920 kaoparazitavoćaka u Makedoniji. Magistarskateza. Novi Sad: Poljoprivrednifakultet – Institut za zaštitubilja.

[10] Mitrev, S. and Kostadinovska, E. (2013). Wild pear-Pyrus pyraster as a new host of Erwinia amylovora in Macedonia. Journal of Plant Pathology, 1(2): 167-170.

[11] Billing, E., Baker, L. A., Crosse, J. E., and Garrett, C. M. (1961). Characteristics of English isolates of Erwinia amylovora (Burrill). J Applied Bacteriol, 24: 195-211.

[12] King, E. O., Ward, M. K., and Raney, D. E. (1954). Two simple media for the demonstration of pyocyanin and fluorescein. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 44: 301-307.

[13] Ishimaru, C. and Klos, E. J. (1984). New medium for detection of Erwinia amylovora and its use in epidemiological studies. Phytopathology, 74: 1342-1345.

[14] Bereswill, S., Pahl, A., Bellemann, P., Zeller, W., and Geider, K. (1992). Sensitive and species-specific detection of Erwinia amylovoraby polymerase chain reaction analysis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58: 3522-3526.

[15] Bereswill, S., Bugert, P., Bruchmuller, I., and Geider, K. (1995). Identification of the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovoraby PCR assays with chromosomal DNA. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61: 2636-2642.

How to cite this paper

Present Status of Erwinia amylovora in the Republic of North Macedonia

How to cite this paper: S. Mitrev, B. Kovacevik, E. Arsov. (2020) Present Status of Erwinia amylovora in the Republic of North Macedonia. International Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 4(4), 390-397.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijfsa.2020.12.005

Volumes & Issues

Free HPG Newsletters

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from Hill Publishing Group.

Contact us

Hill Publishing Group

8825 53rd Ave

Elmhurst, NY 11373, USA

E-mail: contact@hillpublisher.com

Copyright © 2019 Hill Publishing Group Inc. All Rights Reserved.