Hill Publishing Group | contact@hillpublisher.com

Hill Publishing Group

Location:Home / Journals / International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture /


During Fermentation, Microbiology and Biochemistry of the Cocoa Bean

Date: November 26,2021 |Hits: 514 Download PDF How to cite this paper

Mulono Apriyanto*, Rifni Novitasari

Department of Food Technology, Agriculture Faculty, Islamic University of Indragiri, Indragiri Hilir, Riau Province, Indonesia.

*Corresponding author: Mulono Apriyanto


The purpose of this research is to quantitatively and qualitatively examine the fermentation parameters of dry cocoa beans to be more effective in determining the role and function of microorganisms. The three fermentation methods are as follows: control (without inoculums), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (FNCC inocu-lums 3056), Lactobacillus lactis (FNC 0086), and Acetobacter aceti (FNCC 0016), all at a concentration of approximately 108 CFU/g were added simultaneously at the start of the fermentation (A), and all three inoculums were added in stages (B). The results indicated that during fermentation, all three treatments decreased total sugar content, pH, and total polyphenols. In all treatments, the concentrations of ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid peaked at 24, 60, and 108 hours of fermentation, respectively. At 24, 48, and 72 hours of fermentation, the highest populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus lactis, and Acetobacter aceti were obtained from the three treatments.


[1] M. Apriyanto, S. Sutardi, S. Supriyanto, and E. Harmayani. (2017). “Fermentasi Biji Kakao Kering Menggunakan Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus lactis, dan Acetobacter aceti.” agriTECH, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 302-311, 2017.

[2] M. Haile and W. H. Kang. (2019). “The harvest and post-harvest management practices’ impact on coffee quality,” Coffee-Production Res., 2019, [Online]. Available: https://books.google.com/bookshl=en&lr=&id=ikv9DwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA59&dq=microbes+fermentation+cocoa+bean+quality&ots=COtGCjq_82&sig=2cNlY00zG_Bqh28iFQWpQCCXtY4.

[3] K. F. Chai, N. M. Adzahan, R. Karim, Y. Rukayadi, et al. (2018). “Effects of fermentation time and turning intervals on the physicochemical properties of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) fruit sweatings,” Sains …. journalarticle.ukm.my, 2018, [Online]. Available: http://journalarticle.ukm.my/12500/1/07 Kong Fei Chai.pdf.

[4] H. B. Horta-Téllez, A. P. Sandoval-Aldana, et al. (2019). “Evaluation of the fermentation process and final quality of five cacao clones from the department of Huila, Colombia,” Dyna. scielo.org.co, 2019, [Online]. Available: http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?pid=S0012-73532019000300233&script=sci_arttext&tlng=en.

[5] L. C. Pinto, T. P. de Oliveira, R. de Souza, et al. (2021). “Probiotic kefir‐fermented beverage‐based Colocasia esculenta L.: Development, characterization, and microbiological stability during chilled storage,” J. Food …, 2021, doi: 10.1111/jfpp.15113.

[6] M. Apriyanto and M. C. B. Umanailo. (2019). “Decrease Polyphenols , Ethanol , Lactic Acid , and Acetic Acid during Fer-mentation with Addition of Cocoa Beans Innoculum,” Int. J. Sci. Technol. Res., vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 461-465, 2019.

[7] I. R. S. Maigua. (2020). Estudio de los principales componentes químicos no volátiles asociados a la calidad del cacao “Nacional” de Ecuador, como herramienta en la certificación de origen (Study of the main non-volatile chemical components associated with the quality of "national" cacao in Ecuador, as a tool in the certification of origin). repositorio.upct.es, 2020.

[8] F. Sobotta. (2019). Precursors of chocolate aroma–flavour profile comparisons of traditionally fermented cocoa and cocoa beans from fermentation-like incubation by means of HS-SPME …. reposit.haw-hamburg.de, 2019.

[9] J. A. Aldrete-Tapia, D. E. Miranda-Castilleja, et al. (2018). “Pursuing the perfect performer of fermented beverages: GMMs vs. Microbial Consortium,” … Fermented Food …, 2018, [Online]. Available: https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id= CQj8DwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA87& dq=inoculum+microbes+artificial+fermentation+cocoa+bean&ots=m4ao0W297I&sig=ThOOveBuLvyIyiditgH83vamcgo.

[10] N. Niemenak, J. V. E. Eyamo, S. A. M. Djabou, et al. (2020). “Assessment of the profile of free amino acids and reducing sugars of cacao beans from local Cameroonian Trinitario (SNK varieties) and Forastero (TIKO …,” Journal of Applied …. re-searchgate.net, 2020, [Online]. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Nicolas-Niemenak/publication/348959863_ Assessment_of_the_profile_of_free_amino_acids_and_reducing_sugars_of_cacao_beans_from_local_Cameroonian_Trinitario_SNK_varieties_and_Forastero_TIKO_varieties_using_fermentation-li.

[11] L. S. Ribeiro, M. Miguel, S. R. Evangelista, et al. (2017). “Behavior of yeast inoculated during semi-dry coffee fermentation and the effect on chemical and sensorial properties of the final beverage,” Food Research …. Elsevier, 2017, [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0963996916306056.

[12] Nurhayati and M. Apriyanto. (2021). “Sensory evaluation of chocolate bar products materials of dry cocoa seeds in various fermentation treatment,” Czech J. Food Sci., 2021.

[13] J. M. Gutierrez. (2019). “Microbes in Cocoa Beans: What Microbial Communities Can Do on the Formation of Cocoa Aroma during Fermentation,” XXIV Workshop on the Developments in the Italian PhD …. iris.unito.it, 2019, [Online]. Available: https://flore.unifi.it/retrieve/handle/2158/1193320/480924/Atti Workshop4 eng vdef-convertito.pdf#page=471.

[14] M. Apriyanto. (2020). “Studi Mikrobia dan Biokimia Fermentasi Biji Kakao Kering,” J. Teknol. Pertan., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-5, 2020.

[15] M. Apriyanto. (2017). “Analysis of amino acids in cocoa beans produced during fermentation by high performence liquid chromatography (HPLC),” Int. J. Food Ferment. …, 2017, [Online]. Available: https://www.indianjournals.com/ ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ijfft&volume=7&issue=1&article=003.

[16] M. Apriyanto. (2016). “Changes in chemical properties of dreid cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans during fermentation,” Int. J. Fermented Foods, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 11-16, 2016.

[17] Y. B. Saunshi, M. V. S. Sandhya, N. K. Rastogi, and P. S. Murthy. (2020). “Starter consortia for on-farm cocoa fermentation and their quality attributes,” Prep. Biochem. Biotechnol., vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 272-280, 2020, doi: 10.1080/10826068.2019.1689508.

[18] Ahmad, et al. (2021). “Student Responses During Online Learning in the Covid-19 Pandemic Period Student Responses During Online Learning in the Covid-19 Pandemic Period,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 1764, no. 1, p. 012125, 2021. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1764/1/012125.

[19] E. O. Afoakwa, A. S. Budu, H. Mensah-brown, and J. Felix. (2014). “Changes in Biochemical and Physico-chemical Qualities during Drying of Pulp Preconditioned and Fermented Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Beans,” J Nutr. Heal. Food Sci, 2014.

[20] M. Apriyanto. (2021). “Monograf: PENINGKATAN MUTU BIJI KAKAO PETANI.” repository.unisi.ac.id, 2021, [Online]. Available: http://repository.unisi.ac.id/134/1/Monograf Mulono.Okay_rev.pdf.

[21] M. Apriyanto, Y. Riono, and R. Rujiah. (2020). “Pengaruh Populasi Mikroba pada Re-fermentasi terhadap Kualitas Biji Kakao Tanpa Fermentasi,” AGRITEKNO J. Teknol. …, 2020, [Online]. Available: https://ojs3.unpatti.ac.id/index.php/agritek no/article/view/2145.

[22] M. Apriyanto, Sutardi, E. Harmayani, and Supriyanto. (2017). “Amino acid analysis of cocoa fermented by High Performeance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC),” Asian J. Dairy Food Res., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 156-160, 2017.

How to cite this paper

During Fermentation, Microbiology and Biochemistry of the Cocoa Bean

How to cite this paper: Mulono Apriyanto, Rifni Novitasari. (2021) During Fermentation, Microbiology and Biochemistry of the Cocoa Bean. International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture5(4), 688-691.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijfsa.2021.12.016

Volumes & Issues

Free HPG Newsletters

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from Hill Publishing Group.

Contact us

Hill Publishing Group

8825 53rd Ave

Elmhurst, NY 11373, USA

E-mail: contact@hillpublisher.com

Copyright © 2019 Hill Publishing Group Inc. All Rights Reserved.