Alshammari, T. M., Altebainawi, A. F., and Alenzi, K. A. (2020). Importance of early precautionary actions in avoiding the spread of COVID-19: Saudi Arabia as an example. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 28(7), 898-902. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2020.05.005.
Burde, D., Kapit, A., Wahl, R. L., Guven, O., and Skarpeteig, M. I. (2017). Education in emergencies: A review of theory and research. Review of Educational Research, 87(3), 619-658. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654316671594.
Communication & Information Technology Commission. (2021). CITC’s achievements during the COVID-19 pandemic. Communication & Information Technology Commission.
Daniel, S. J. (2020). Education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospects, 49(1), 91-96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-020-09464-3.
Hassounah, M., Raheel, H., and Alhefzi, M. (2020). Digital response during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(9), e19338. https://doi.org/10.2196/19338.
International Telecommunication Union (ITU). (2020). An overview of the state of digital development around the world based on ITU data.Digital development dashboard. Retrived from https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Dashboards/Pages/ Digital- Development.aspx.
Mann, A., Schwabe, M., Fraser, F., Fülöp, G., and Ansah, G. A. (2020). How the Covid-19 pandemic is changing education: A perspective from Saudi Arabia. OECD.
Milenkova, V. and Lendzhova, V. (2021). Digital citizenship and digital literacy in the conditions of social crisis. Computers, 10(4), 40. https://doi.org/10.3390/computers10040040.
Ministry of Education. (2020). The Saudi MOE leading efforts to combat coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19), Saudi Arabia. Retrived December 10, 2020, from https://iite.unesco.org/publications/leading-efforts-to-combat-coronavirus-pandemic/.
Murphy, M. P. A. (2020). COVID-19 and emergency eLearning: Consequences of the securitization of higher education for post-pandemic pedagogy. Contemporary Security Policy, 41(3), 492-505. https://doi.org/10.1080/13523260.2020.1761749.
National Transformation Program. (2020). Saudi Arabia’s vision 2030. Saudi Arabia. Retrived April 27, 2020, from https://www.vision2030.gov.sa/v2030/vrps/ntp/.
O’Keefe, L., Dellinger, J. T., Scragg, B., Amelina, N., and Mathes, J. (2020). The state of online learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A COVID-19 impact study for K- 12. Online Learning Consortium.
Ohali, Y. A., Suhaibani, A. A., Palavitsinis, N., and Koutoumanos, A. (2018). Digital transformation of education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Deploying a country-wide learning management system for K-12 education. In K. Nitalianis, A. Andreatos, & C. Sgouropoulou (Eds.), ECEL 2018 17th Annual Conference on eLearning (pp. 1-9, XVIII). Academic Conferences and Publishing Limited.
OMEP Executive Committee, & World Organisation for Early Childhood Education. (2020). OMEP position paper: Early childhood education and care in the time of COVID-19. International Journal of Early Childhood, 52(2), 119-128. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-020-00273-5.
Online Learning Consortium. (2021a). K-12 online learning in Saudi Arabia. National eLearning Center.
Online Learning Consortium. (2021b). The state of online learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. National eLearning Center.
Perveen, S., Orfali, R., Azam, M. S. U., Aati, H. Y., Bukhari, K., Bukhari, S. I., and Al-Taweel, A. (2020). Coronavirus nCOVID-19: A pandemic disease and the Saudi precautions. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 28(7), 888-897. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2020.06.006.
Richards, R. (2010). Digital citizenship and web 2.0 tools. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 6(2), 516-522.
Rodriguez, M. B., Cristobal, C., Muñoz-Najar, A., and Ciarrusta, I. S. (2020). Remote learning during the global school lockdown: Multi-country lessons. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Group. Retrieved from https://documents.worldbank.org /en/publication/documentsreports/documentdetail/668741627975171644/remote-learning-during-the-global-school-lockdown-multi-country-lessons.
Rush, S. C., Partridge, A., and Wheeler, J. (2016). Implementing emergency online schools on the fly as a means of responding to school closures after disaster strikes. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 45(2), 188-201. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047239516649740.
Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030. (2016). The council of economic and development affairs. Retrived Feburary 20, 2017, from http://www.vision2030.gov.sa/en.
Schwab, K. and Zahidi, S. (2020). How countries are performing on the road to recovery. The global competitiveness report. World Economic Forum.
Sustainability Report. (2019). Beyond the future. Saudi Telecom Company STC.
Tanveer, M., Bhaumik, A., Hassan, S., and Haq, I. U. (2020). Covid-19 pandemic, outbreak educational sector and students online learning in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 23(3), 1-14.
Trust, T. and Whalen, J. (2020). Should teachers be trained in emergency remote teaching? Lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 28(2), 189-199.
UNESCO. (2020). Reopening schools: When, where and how? Retrived November 9, 2020, from https://en.unesco.org/news/reopening-schools-when-where-and-how.
UNICEF. (2020). COVID-19: Are children able to continue learning during school closures? Retrived November 9, 2020, from https://data.unicef.org/resources/remote-learning-reachabilityfactsheet/.
Unified National Platform. (2020). Takaful charity foundation. Digital government authority, Saudi Arabia. Retrived October 7, 2020, from https://www.my.gov.sa/wps/portal/snp/agencies/agencyDetails/AC357.
Unified National Platform. (2021). The national strategy for digital transformation. Saudi Arabia’s National Unified Portal for Government Services. Retrived from https://www.my.gov.sa/wps/portal/snp/aboutksa/digitaltransformation#header2_0.
United Nation. (2020). Policy brief: Education during COVID-19 and beyond. UN Sustainable Development Group. Retrieved from https://unsdg.un.org/resources/policy-brief-education-during-covid-19-and-beyond.
World Health Organization. (2020). COVID-19 strategy update. Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/covid-19-strategy-update.
Yezli, S. and Khan, A. (2020). COVID-19 social distancing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Bold measures in the face of political, economic, social and religious challenges. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 37, 101692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101692.