Hill Publishing Group | contact@hillpublisher.com

Hill Publishing Group

Location:Home / Journals / International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture /


Evaluation of Physicochemical and Microbial Qualities of Bottled Water Samples Vended Around a University in the South-East, Nigeria

Date: January 30,2023 |Hits: 1653 Download PDF How to cite this paper

N. L. Nwanagba1, A. N. Ukom1, H. O. Okudu2, J. N. Okoli2, I. L. Okparauka3, C. P. Muoghalu1, O. A. Olaoye1,*

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.

2Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.

3Science Laboratory Technology Biochemistry Unit, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Uwana, Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: O. A. Olaoye


This study evaluated the quality of four (4) different bottled water samples being sold in one of the environs of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, a University in the South East, Nigeria. Standard methods were used in assessing the physicochemical and microbiological qualities of the water samples. Results showed that coliforms and fungi were not detected in the samples, hence comply with world health organization (WHO) requirement for drinking water. However, total bacteria counts ranged from 1.54 to 2.08 log CFU/ml, deviating slightly from requirement of WHO. Results of the physicochemical parameters were within the WHO acceptable limits, with the exception of alkalinity (140.35-145.23 mg/l) and phosphorous (0.79-0.94 mg/l) which were above the permissible limits of 50mg/l and zero respectively. In conclusion, some of the physicochemical quality attributes of the bottled water samples did not conform with the WHO requirement for drinking water, making the current finding of public health significance to consumers of bottled water in the University. Strict adherence to quality control measures should be observed by manufacturers of the bottled water to help improve quality and protect public health.


[1] Amajor, J.U., Eleazu, C.O., Amajor, E.E., Ironua, C.F., Nwosu, P. (2012). Comparative Evaluation of the Physicochemical Composition and Microbial Quality of Seven Different Water Sources used in Processing Root and Tuber Crops in Umudike. Nigerian. African Journal of Biotecnology, 11(87):15330-15335. 

[2] Trivedi, A., Bajpai, S., Thereja, P. (2009). Evaluation of Water Quality. Physicochemical Characteristics of Ganga River at Kanpur by using Correlation Study. National. Science, 1(6): 91-94. 

[3] Omer, N.H. (2019). Water Quality Parameters. In: Water Quality - Science, Assessments and Policy - J. K.Summers (ed). ISBN: 978-1-83968-392-3. Hindawi Publishers, 1 Fitzroy Square, London W1T 5HF, United Kingdom.

[4] Parag, Y., Opher, T. (2018). Bottled drinking water. In: Water and Health. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems, 1: 1-8.

[5] AOAC. (2005). Official methods of analysis, 18th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC. ISBN 0-935584-77-3.

[6] Olaoye, O. A., Onilude, A. A. (2009). Assessment of microbiological quality of sachet packaged drinking water in Western Nigeria and its public health significance. Public Health, 123: 729–734.

[7] Tillett, H. E. (1987). Most probable numbers of organisms: revised tables for the multiple tube method. Epidemiology and Infection 99: 471-476.

[8] Aneja, K. R. (2004). Experiments in microbiology, plant pathology & biotechnology (4th ed.). New Delhi: New AGE International (P) Ltd. 

[9] Olaoye, O. A., Onilude, A. A. (2010). Investigation on the potential use of biological agents in the extension of fresh beef in Nigeria. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 26: 1445-1454.

[10] Osibanjo, O. (1996). Present water quality status in Nigeria, In: F.O. Aina and A. Adedipe (Edn). Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) Monograph in water quality; 6:35-46. 

[11] Khothalang, E. M., Lineo, W., Mosotho, J. G., Sissay, B. (2020). Comparison of the physicochemical and microbiological quality of different brands of bottled water with well water in Lesotho using principal component analysis. Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, National University of Lesotho, PO Roma 180, Lesotho.6pgs.

[12] Edimeh, P. O, Eneji, I. S, Oketunde, O., Sha’ato, R. (2011). Physico-chemical parameters and some heavy metals content of rivers In achalo and Niger in Idah, Kogi State. Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 36(1):95-101.

[13] Uzoh, U. E., Okoro, B. C., Osuagwu J. C. (2017). Evaluation of Urban Drinking Water Quality in South East Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Engineering Investigations 6: 51-56.

[14] Zabed, H., Suely, A., Faruq, G., Sahu, J. N. (2014). Water quality assessment of an unusual ritual well in Bangladesh and impact of mass bathing on this quality, Science of the Total Environment, 472: 363-369.

[15] Chidya, R. C. G., Sajidu, S. M. I., Mwatseteza, J. F., Masamba, W. R. L. (2011). Evaluation and assessment of water quality in Likangala River and its catchment area, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 36: 865-871.

[16] WHO (World Health Organization). (2017). Guidelines for drinking-water quality: fourth edition incorporating the first addendum. Geneva: Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

How to cite this paper

Evaluation of Physicochemical and Microbial Qualities of Bottled Water Samples Vended Around a University in the South-East, Nigeria

How to cite this paper:  N. L. Nwanagba, A. N. Ukom, H. O. Okudu, J. N. Okoli, I. L. Okparauka, C. P. Muoghalu, O. A. Olaoye. (2023) Evaluation of Physicochemical and Microbial Qualities of Bottled Water Samples Vended Around a University in the South-East, Nigeria. International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture7(1), 16-20.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijfsa.2023.03.003

Volumes & Issues

Free HPG Newsletters

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from Hill Publishing Group.

Contact us

Hill Publishing Group

8825 53rd Ave

Elmhurst, NY 11373, USA

E-mail: contact@hillpublisher.com

Copyright © 2019 Hill Publishing Group Inc. All Rights Reserved.