Hill Publishing Group | contact@hillpublisher.com

Hill Publishing Group

Location:Home / Journals / The Educational Review, USA /

DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/er.2018.11.002

Marketing English Language Services to a Mature Audience: A Comparative Study of Japan and South Korea

Date: November 20,2018 |Hits: 1881 Download PDF How to cite this paper

Jeremy Chambers

ADVAN College of Foreign Languages, Japan.

*Corresponding author: Jeremy Chambers, Ph.D.

Abstract

As the population of the world ages there is increasing need for an assessment of the marketing strategies that are used to target the elderly. The literature relating to the marketing of foreign languages to the elderly is sparse. Although academicians are divided on the specific age at which a customer transcends to the mature market many agree that this market can begin with members 50years and over. Neilson and Curry (1997) and Moschis (2003) have written in depth expositions on the strategies that ought to be used in respect to members of the mature audience. Using the Moschis Framework, this research explored the marketing techniques used by private English conversation schools in Japan (called eikaiwas) and South Korea (referred to as hogwans) to attract members of the mature audience. A qualitative approach was used to garner the data needed using in depth interviews and archival research. Twelve participants were interviewed. These participants were School Presidents, Administrators and Marketing Officers from Japan and South Korea. The results showed that Japan and South Korea enacted very different marketing strategies in respect to members of the mature audience. Japanese marketers are more prone to appeal to the younger self referent ages of the elderly through their use of younger looking models, brighter colored pamphlets and creative settings for advertisements. Koreans are more conservative in their approach and are inclined to appeal to the nationalistic tendencies of older Koreans. However, both groups use similar segmentation techniques with age being the dominant variable. It is recommended that further research incorporates other segment of the mature audience like the very old and be expanded to look at the marketing strategies that could be effective in marketing online English courses to Asian customers 50 years and over.


References

 Anderson, J. (2012). Expanding Horizons: New Languages for the Elderly.

Anjali, P. (2012). Role of Universities in Lifelong Learning for Elderly People. Asian Journal of Home Science, 7(2), 600-660.

Balaz, A. (1995). The Use and Image of Mature Adults in Health Care Advertising. Health Marketing Quarterly, 12(3), 13-26.

Berry,  L.  (1995).  Relationship Marketing  of Services:Growing Interest, Emerging Perspectives. Journal  of  the  Academy  of Marketing Sciences, 23(4), 236-245.

Bone, P. (1991). Identifying Mature Segments. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 8(4), 19-32.
Carrigan,  M.  (1998).  Segmenting  the Grey Market: The Case  for Fifty-Plus Lifegroups. Journal  of  Marketing  Practice:  Ap-plied Marketing Science, 4(2), 43-56.

Carrigan,  M.  (1999).  Old  Spice–Developing Successful Relationships  with  the Grey Market. Long  Range  Planning, 32(2), 253-262.

Carrigan, M.,& Szmigin, I. (1998). The Usage and Portrayal of Older Models in Contemporary Consumer Advertising. Jour-nal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science, 4(8), 231-248.

Chang, D. (2007). The We-Me Culture. Marketing to Korean Consumers, 18,141-157.

Desler, G. (2003). Human Resource Management. NJ: Prentice Hall.

Doka, K. (1992). When Gray Is Golden: Business in an Aging America. The Futurist, 26(4), 16-20.

Gordon, T., Moser, H.,& Warren, W. (2002). Serving the Needs ofMature Citizens: Strategies and Techniques for Targeting the 50+ Population. Services Marketing Quarterly, 24(1), 1-17.

Greco,  A.  (1987).  Linking Dimensions  of  the Elderly Market  to Market Planning. Journal  of  Consumer  Marketing, 4(2), 47-55.

Hadzantonis, M. (2013). English Language Pedagogies for a Northeast Asian Context. NY: Routledge Publishers.

Heinze,  U.  (2011).  Radio and Television Consumption  in  Japan: ATrilateral Intercultural Comparison  with  the  UK  and  Ger-many. Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies, 3(5), 14-25

Hemsley-Brown, J.,& Oplatka, I. (2006). Universities in a Competitive Global Marketplace:ASystematic Review of the Lit-erature on Higher Education Marketing. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 19(4), 316-338.

Herbig, P. (1995). Marketing Japanese style. CT: Quorum Books.

Lazer, W. (1986). Dimensions of the Mature Market. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 3(3), 23-34.

Lazer , W., Mura, S.,& Kosaka, H. (1995). Japanese Marketing: Towards a Better Understanding. Journal ofMarketing, 49(2), 69-81.

Leventhal,  R.  (1997).  Aging Consumers  and Their Effects  on  the Marketplace. Journal  of  Consumer  Marketing,14(4), 276-281.

Lunsford,  D.,&  Burnett,  M.  (1992).  Marketing Product Innovations  to  the  Elderly: Understanding  the Barriers  to Adoption. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 9(4), 53-62.

Manheimer, R. (2005). The Older Learner’s Journey to an Ageless Society: Lifelong Learning on the Brink of Crisis. Journal of Transformative Education, 3(198), 198-220.

Mathur, A., Sherman,E.,& Schiffman, L. (1998). Opportunities for Marketing Travel Services to New-Age Elderly. Journal of Services Marketing, 12(4), 265-277.

Mattila, M.,Karjaluoto, H.,& Pento, T. (2003). Internet Banking Adoption among Mature Customers: Early Majority or Lag-gard? Journal of Services Marketing, 17(5), 514-528.

Michman,  R.,  Mazze,  E.,&  Greco,  A.  (2003). Lifestyle Marketing: Reaching  the New  American Consumer. Westport,  CT: Praeger Publishers.

Milliman,  R.,&  Erffmeyer,  R.  (1990).  Improving Advertising Aimed  at Seniors. Journal  of  Advertising  Research, 29(6), 31-36.

Moschis,  G. (2003).  Marketing to Older Adults: An Updated Overview  of Present Knowledge  and Practice. Journal  of  Con-sumer Marketing, 20(6), 516-525.

Moschis,  G.,  Curasi,  C.,&  Bellenger,  D. (2003).  Restaurant Selection Preferences  of Mature Consumers. Cornell  Hotel  and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 44(4), 51-60.

Neilson, J.,& Curry, K. (1997). Creative Strategies for Connecting with Mature Individuals. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 14(4), 310-322.

Rhee, Y. (2002). Global Public Relations: ACross-Cultural Study of the Excellence Theory in South Korea. Journal of Public Relations Research, 14(3), 159-184.

Semon, T. (1995). Gerontophobia in Marketing Research.Marketing News, 29(1),23-24.

Sidbury, L.,& Simcock, P. (2009). A Multivariate Segmentation Model of Senior Consumers. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 26(4), 251-262.

Singh, A. (2001). Lifelong Education, Present Status andFuture Strategy.Indian Journal of Adult Education, 12(2),25-37.

Spero, I.,& Stone, M. (2004). Agents of Change: How Young Consumers Are Changing the World of Marketing. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 7(2), 153-159.
Tre’guer, J. (2002).50+ Marketing: Marketing Communicating  and Selling  to  the Over  50s Generations. Paris:  Palgrave Macmillan.

United Nations.(2015). World Population Ageing Report 1950-2050.

Ying,  B.,&  Yao,  R.  (2010). Self Perceived Age  and Attitudes  towards Marketing  of Older Consumers  in  China.Journal  of Family and Economic Issues, 31(3), 318-327.

How to cite this paper

Marketing English Language Services to a Mature Audience: A Comparative Study of Japan and South Korea

How to cite this paper: Chambers, J. (2018). Marketing English Language Services to a Mature Audience: A Comparative Study of Japan and South Korea. The Educational Review, USA, 2(11), 514-525.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/er.2018.11.002

Free HPG Newsletters

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from Hill Publishing Group.

Contact us

Hill Publishing Group

8825 53rd Ave

Elmhurst, NY 11373, USA

E-mail: contact@hillpublisher.com

Copyright © 2019 Hill Publishing Group Inc. All Rights Reserved.