The Educational Review, USA

ISSN Print: 2575-7938 Downloads: 196137 Total View: 2852294
Frequency: monthly ISSN Online: 2575-7946 CODEN: TERUBB
Email: edu@hillpublisher.com
Article http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/er.2024.01.001

Distance Education in Early Childhood Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Teachers’ and Parents’ Perspectives and Experiences in Greece

Vassiliki Pliogou1,*, Harilaos Zaragas2, Sophia Tromara1, Athina Koliopoulou1, Efthymios Papatzikis3

1Department of Early Childhood Education, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Western Macedonia, Florina, Greece. 

2Department of Early Childhood Education, School of Education, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece. 

3Department of Early Childhood Education and Care, Faculty of Education and International Studies, University of Metropolitan Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

*Corresponding author: Vassiliki Pliogou


This article belongs to Special Issue “The Impact of COVID-19 on Contemporary Education”.
Published: March 1,2024

Abstract

The unprecedented crisis of the COVID-19 inflicted all spheres of social life and especially education, to which Early Childhood Education (ECE) belongs. ECE had to adapt to an entirely new and unknown situation, including teachers, parents, and children. We qualitatively explored through semi-structured interviews both teachers’ and parents’ perspectives toward the implementation of distance education in ECE in Greece. Data were triangulated. The aims of this research were to examine: (1) The reactions of teachers and children/parents toward distance education; (2) Advantages and disadvantages of distance education in ECE; (3) Method preferred; (4) Parental involvement. Results indicated that although the shift to online teaching was abrupt, they managed to respond effectively by applying digital tools and teaching strategies to motivate the participation of children. However, they also highlighted the increased demand for teacher’s training in ICT, the social impact, the implementation of a holistic approach, material and psychological support to parents and children, and finally, post-pandemic implications.

References

Achen, K., & Rutledge, D. (2022). The Transition from Emergency Remote Teaching to Quality Online Course Design: Instructor Perspectives of Surprise, Awakening, Closing Loops, and Changing Engagement. Community College Journal of Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1080/10668926.2022.2046207.

Addi-Raccah, A., & Tamir, N. S. (2022). Mothers as Teachers to Their Children: Lessons Learned During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Family Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/13229400.2022.2048964.

Adedoyin, O. B., & Soykan, E. (2020). Covid-19 Pandemic and Online Learning: The Challenges and Opportunities. Interactive Learning Environments. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2020.1813180.

Aditya, B., Andrisyah, A., Ismiatun, A., Atika, A., & Permadi, A. (2022). Digital Disruption in Early Childhood Education: A Qualitative Research From Teachers’ Perspective. Procedia Computer Science. 197. 521-528. 

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2021.12.169.

Aizenberg, M., & Zilka, G. C. (2022). Preservice Kindergarten Teachers’ Distance Teaching Practices During the COVID-19 Lock-down Period. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/10901027.2022.2075813.

Atiles, J. T., Almodóvar, M., Vargas, A. C., Dias, M. J. A., & León, I. M. Z. (2021). International Responses to COVID-19: Challenges Faced by Early Childhood Professionals. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 29(1), 66-78.

https://doi.org/10.1080/1350293X.2021.1872674.

Bates, J., Finlay, J., & O’Connor Bone, U. (2021). “Education Cannot Cease”: The Experiences of Parents of Primary Age Children (Age 4-11) In Northern Ireland During School Closures Due to COVID-19. Educational Review. 

https://doi.org/10.1080/00131911.2021.1974821.

Bormann, I., & Seong Ng, D. F. (Reviewing editor). (2021). How Does Research Knowledge About Social Inequality in Education Matter During the Pandemic? Results of an Analysis of a Public Discourse in Germany. Cogent Education, 8(1). 

https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2021.1985687.

Bormann, I., Brøgger, K., Pol, M., & Lazarová, B. (2021). COVID-19 and its Effects: On the Risk of Social Inequality Through Digitalization and the Loss of Trust in Three European Education Systems. European Educational Research Journal, 20(5), 610-635. https://doi.org/10.1177/14749041211031356.

Braun V., Clarke V., Hayfield N., & Terry, G. (2019). Thematic Analysis. In P. Liamputtong (Ed.), Handbook of Research Methods in Health Social Sciences (pp. 843-860). Sage.

Bryman, A. (2012). Social Research Methods (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Buchanan, D., Hargreaves, E., & Quick, L. (2022). Schools Closed During the Pandemic: Revelations About the Well-Being of ‘Lower-Attaining’ Primary-School Children. Education, 3-13. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004279.2022.2043405.

Carrillo, C., & Flores, M. A. (2020). COVID-19 and Teacher Education: A Literature Review of Online Teaching and Learning Practices. European Journal of Teacher Education, 43(4), 466-487. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2020.1821184.

Chalari, M., & Charonitis, G. (2022). The First Reactions of Early Childhood Education Schools During the Early Days of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Greece. Education 3-13.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03004279.2022.2112733.

Cheshmehzangi, A., Zou, T, Su, Z., & Tang, T. (2022). The Growing Digital Divide in Education Among Primary and Secondary Children During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An overview of social exclusion and education equality issues. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment. https://doi.org/10.1080/10911359.2022.2062515.

Choi, M., & Cristol, D. (2021). Digital Citizenship with Intersectionality Lens: Towards Participatory Democracy Driven Digital Citizenship Education. Theory Into Practice, 60(4), 361-370. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2021.1987094.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (4th ed.). Sage Publications, Inc.

Danby, S. J., Fleer, M., Davidson, C., & Hatzigianni, M. (2018), (Eds.). Digital Childhoods: Technologies and Children’s Everyday Lives. Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781529714388.n230.

Dayal, H. C., & Tiko, L. (2020). When are We Going to Have the Real School? A Case Study of Early Childhood Education and Care Teachers’ Experiences Surrounding Education During The COVID-19 Pandemic. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 45, 336-347. https://doi.org/0.1177/1836939120966085.

Dias, M. J. A., Almodóvar, M., Atiles, J. T., Vargas, A. C., & Léon, I. M. Z. (2020). Rising to the Challenge: Innovative Early Childhood Teachers Adapt to the COVID-19 Era. Childhood Education, 96, 38-45. https://doi.org/10.1080/00094056.2020.184638.

Dong, C. (2016). Young Children’s Use of ICT in Shanghai Preschools. Asia-Pacific Journal of Research in Early Childhood Education, 10(3), 97-123.

Dong, C., Cao S, & Li, H. (2020). Young Children's Online Learning During COVID-19 Pandemic: Chinese Parents' Beliefs and Attitudes. Children and Youth Services Review, 118, 105440. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105440.

Doucet, A., Netolicky, D., Timmers, K., & Tuscano, F. (2020). Thinking About Pedagogy in an Unfolding Pandemic. an Independent Report on Approaches to Distance Learning During COVID-19 School Closures Independent Report Written to Inform the Work of Education International and UNESCO. URL (last checked 1 January 2024). 

https://www.oitcinterfor.org/sites/default/files/file_publicacion/2020_Research_COVID-19.pdf.

Edwards, S., Skouteris, H., Cutter-Mackenzie, A., Rutherford, L., O’Conner, M., Mantilla, A., Morris, H., & Elliot, S. (2016). Young Children Learning About Well-Being and Environmental Education in the Early Years: A Funds of Knowledge Approach. Early Years, 36(1), 33-50.

Emejulu, A., & McGregor, C. (2019). Towards a Radical Digital Citizenship in Digital Education. Critical Studies in Education, 60(1), 131-147. https://doi.org/10.1080/17508487.2016.1234494.

Epps, A., Brown, M., Nijjar, B., & Hyland, L. (2021). Paradigms Lost and Gained: Stakeholder Experiences of Crisis Distance Learning During the Covid-19 Pandemic. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 37(3), 167-182. 

https://doi.org/10.1080/21532974.2021.1929587.

Epstein, J. (2001). School, Family, and Community Partnerships: Preparing Educators and Improving Schools. Westview.

European Commission, Directorate-General for Education, Youth, Sport and Culture. (2021). Early Childhood Education and Care and the Covid-19 Pandemic: Understanding and Managing the Impact of the Crisis on the Sector. Publications Office of the European Union. URL (last checked 01 January 2024) https://data.europa.eu/doi/10.2766/60724.

Ford, T. G., Kwon, K.-A., Tsotsoros, J. D. (2021). Early Childhood Distance Learning in the U.S. During the COVID Pandemic: Challenges and Opportunities. Children and Youth Services Review, 131, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2021.106297.

Foti, P. (2021). Adaptation to COVID-19-era and Distance Education in Kindergarten School. Research on Teachers' Views. Open Education—The Journal for Open and Distance Education and Educational Technology, 17(2), 92-115. URL (last checked 01 January 2024). https://ejournals.epublishing.ekt.gr/index.php/openjournal/article/view/25458/22048.

Garbe, A., Ogurlu, U., Logan, N., & Cook, P. (2020). COVID-19 and Remote Learning: Experiences of Parents with Children During the Pandemic. American Journal of Qualitative Research, 4(3), 45-65. https://doi.org/10.29333/ajqr/8471.

Gayatri, M. (2020). The Implementation of Early Childhood Education in the Time of Covid-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, 8(6), 46-54. https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2020.866.

Gordo, A. (2020). Digital childhoods. In D. Cook (Ed.), The Sage Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood Studies (Vol. 1, pp. 636-637). SAGE Publications, Inc. https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781529714388.n230.

Gözüm, A. İ. C., Metin, Ş, Uzun, H., & Karaca, N. H. (2022). Developing the Teacher Self Efficacy Scale in the Use of ICT at Home for Pre School Distance Education During Covid 19. Technology, Knowledge and Learning. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-022-09616-81.

Haelermans, C., Korthals, R., Jacobs, M., de Leeuw, S., Vermeulen, S., van Vugt, L. et al. (2022). Sharp Increase in Inequality in Education in Times of the COVID-19-Pandemic. PLoS ONE, 17(2), 17-32. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0261114.

Hall, T., Connolly, C., Ó Grádaigh, S., Burden, K., Kearney, M., Schuck, S., Bottema, J., Cazemier, G., Hustinx, W., Evens, M., Koenraad, T., Makridou, E., & Kosmas, P. (2020). Education in Precarious Times: A Comparative Study Across Six Countries to Identify Design Priorities for Mobile Learning in a Pandemic. Information and Learning Sciences, 121(5/6), 433-442. https://doi.org/10.1108/ILS-04-2020-0089.

Hill, E. N. (2022). Parental Involvement in Education: Toward a More Inclusive Understanding of Parents’ Role Construction. Educational Psychologist, 57(4), 309-314. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2022.2129652.

Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020). The Difference Between Emergency Remote Teaching and Online Learning. EDUCAUSE. URL (last checked 01 January 2024). https://er.educause.edu/articles/2020/3/the-difference-between-emergency-remote-teachingand-online-learning.

Hoover-Dempsey, K., & Sandler, H. (1995). Parental Involvement in Children's Education: Why Does it Make a Difference? Teachers College Record, 97(2), 310-331.

Kalas, I. (2012). ICTs in Early Childhood Care and Education. UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education. URL (last checked 01 January 2024). https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000224207.

Karabanov, G. M., Asaf, M., Ziv, M., & Aram, D. (2021). Parental Behaviors and Involvement in Children’s Digital Activities Among Israeli Jewish and Arab Families During the Covid-19 Lockdown. Early Education and Development, 32(6), 881-902.

https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2021.1882810.

Khalid, A., & Singal, N. (2022). Parents As Partners in Education During COVID-19-Related School Closures in England: Challenges and Opportunities Identified by Parents with Pakistani and Bangladeshi Heritage. Journal of Family Studies. 

https://doi.org/10.1080/13229400.2022.2098804.

Kim, J. (2020). Learning and Teaching Online During Covid 19: Experiences of Student Teachers in an Early Childhood Education Practicum. International Journal of Early Childhood, 52, 145-158. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-020-00272-6.

Kim, J. H., Araya, M., Hailu, B. H., Rose, M. P., & Woldehanna, T. (2021). The Implications of Covid-19 For Early Childhood Educa-tion in Ethiopia: Perspectives from Parents and Caregivers. Early Childhood Education Journal, 49, 855-867. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-021-01214-0.

King, N., Horrocks, C., & Brooks, J. (2018). Interviews in Qualitative Research (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications. URL (last checked 01 January 2024). https://www.perlego.com/book/1431546/interviews-in-qualitative-research-pdf.

Knopik, T., Błaszczak, A., Maksymiuk, R., & Oszwa, U. (2021). Parental Involvement in Remote Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic-Dominant Approaches and their Diverse Implications. European Journal of Education, 56, 623-640.

https://doi.org/10.1111/ejed.12474.

Košir, K., Dugonik, Š., Huskić, A., Gračner, J., Kokol, Z., & Krajnc, Ž. (2022). Predictors of Perceived Teachers’ and School Counsellors’ Work Stress in the Transition Period of Online Education in Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Educational Studies, 48(6), 844-848. https://doi.org/10.1080/03055698.2020.1833840.

Kozar, O. (2016). Teachers’ Reaction to Silence and Teachers’ Wait Time in Video and Audioconferencing English Lessons: Do Webcams Make a Difference? System, 62, 53-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2016.07.002.

Kruszewska, A., Nazaruk, S., & Szewczyk, K. (2022). Polish Teachers of Early Education in the Face of Distance Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic-the Difficulties Experienced and Suggestions for the Future. Education 3-13, 50(3), 304-315.

https://doi.org/10.1080/03004279.2020.1849346.

Lau, E.Y.H., & Lee, K. (2020). Parents’ Views on Young Children’s Distance Learning and Screen Time During COVID-19 Class Suspension in Hong Kong. Early Education and Development, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2020.1843925.

Lester, J. N., Cho, Y., & Lochmiller, C. R. (2020). Learning to Do Qualitative Data Analysis: A Starting Point. Human Resource Development Review, 19(1), 94-106. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484320903890.

López-Escribano, C, Escudero, A. & Pérez-López, R. (2021). An Exploratory Study About Patterns of Parental Home Literacy Activities During the COVID-19 Confinement Among Spanish Families. Early Education and Development, 32(6), 812-829.

https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2021.1916184.

Mankki, V. (2022). Primary Teachers’ Principles for High-Quality Distance Teaching During COVID-19. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 66(5), 852-864. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2021.1939141.

Masoumi, D. (2021). Situating ICT in Early Childhood Teacher Education. Education Information Technology, 26, 3009-3026. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-020-10399-7.

McCarthy, A. M., Maor, D., McConney, A., & Cavanaugh, C. (2023). Digital Transformation in Education: Critical Components for Leaders of System Change. Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 8(1), 100479l. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssaho.2023.100479.

McCoy, D. C., Cuartas, J., Behrman, J., Cappa, C., Heymann, J., López Bóo, F., Lu, C., Raikes, A., Richter, L., Stein, A., & Fink, G. (2021). Global Estimates of The Implications Of COVID-19-Related Preprimary School Closures for Children’s Instructional Access, Development, Learning, and Economic Wellbeing. Child Development, 92, O883-O899. 

https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13658.

Mérida-Serrano, R., González-Alfaya, M. E., Olivares-García, M. A., Rodríguez-Carrillo, J., & Muñoz-Moya, M. (2020). Sustainable Development Goals in Early Childhood Education. Empowering Young Girls to Bridge the Gender Gap in Science. Sustainabil-ity, 12(22), 9312. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229312.

Muhdi, Nurkolis, & Yuliejantiningsih, Y. (2020). The Implementation of Online Learning in Early Childhood Education During the Covid-19 Pandemic. Jurnal Pendidikan Usia Dini, 14(2), 247-261. https://doi.org/10.21009/JPUD.142.04.

Munastiwi, E., & Puryono, S. (2021). Unprepared Management Decreases Education Performance in Kindergartens During Covid-19 Pandemic. Heliyon, 7(5), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07138.

Nagasawa, M., & Tarrant, K. (2020). Forgotten Frontline Workers: A Snapshot of Family Child Care and COVID-19 in New York. Straus Center for Young Children & Families, Bank Street College of Education. https://educate.bankstreet.edu/sc/3.

Natow, R. S. (2020). The Use of Triangulation in Qualitative Studies Employing Elite Interviews. Qualitative Research, 20(2), 160-173. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1468794119830077.

Nikolopoulou, K., & Gialamas, V. (2015). ICT and Play in Preschool: Early Childhood Teachers’ Beliefs and Confidence. International Journal of Early Years Education, 23(4), 409-425. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669760.2015.1078727.

Nisiforou, E. A., Kosmas, P., & Vrasidas, C. (2021). Emergency Remote Teaching During COVID-19 Pandemic: Lessons Learned from Cyprus. Educational Media International, 58(2), 215-221. https://doi.org/10.1080/09523987.2021.1930484.

O’Toole, L., Kiely, J., McGillacuddy, D., O’Brien, E. Z., & O’Keeffe, C. (2019). Parental Involvement, Engagement and Partnership in their Children’s Education During the Primary School Years. National Parents Council Primary. URL (last checked 01 Janu-ary 2024) https://school-education.ec.europa.eu/en/insights/publications/parental-involvement-engagement-and-partnership.

OECD, UNESCO, UNICEF, & The World Bank. (2022). From Learning Recovery to Education Transformation. What Needs to Happen to Recover Learning Post-COVID and Transform Education for the Better. URL (last checked 01 January 2024) https://www.unicef.org/blog/learning-recovery-education-transformation.

OECD. (2021). Education at a Glance 2021: OECD Indicators. OECD Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1787/892d714e-en.

OMEP Executive Committee, World Organisation for Early Childhood Education. OMEP Position Paper. (2020). Early Childhood Education and Care in the Time of COVID-19. International Journal of Early Childhood, 52, 119-128. 

https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-020-00273-5.

Palaiologou, L. (2016). Children Under Five and Digital Technologies: Implications for Early Year’s Pedagogy. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 24(1), 5-24.

Papandreou, M., & Vellopoulou, A. (2022). Redefining Interaction and Participation in Digital Times: Early Childhood Teachers’ Understandings in Greece. Early Child Development and Care. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2022.2075354.

Papatzikis, E. (2021). An Infant's Question on Covid-19 and Music: Should I Attend my Online Classes? Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 771050. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.771050.

Patrinos, H. A., Vegas, E., & Carter-Rau, R. (2022, May 16). COVID-19 School Closures Fueled Big Learning Losses, Especially for The Disadvantaged. World Bank Let’s Talk Development. URL (last checked 01 January 2024). https://blogs.worldbank.org/developmenttalk/covid-19-school-closures-fueled-big-learning-losses-especially-disadvantaged.

Petrie, C. (2022). Every Child to Flourish in A Post-COVID-19 World: Eight Lessons and Visions for the Future. In S. Vincent-Lancrin, C. C. Romaní, & F. Reimers (Eds.), How Learning Continued During the Covid-19 Pandemic: Global Lessons from Initiatives to Support Learners and Teachers (pp. 91-106). OECD Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1787/a6fcabbe-en.

Pliogou, V., Grivopoulou, A., Karakatsani, D., & Hatzis, Y. (2022). Teaching Education Process and Citizenship in the Contemporary Digital Environment: A Literature Review. International Journal of Educational Innovation, 4(2), 68-78. URL (last checked 01 January 2024)

https://journal.eepek.gr/manuscript/didaktiki-diadikasia-kai-politeiotita-sto-sygchrono-psifiako-ekpaideytiko-periballon-bibliografiki-anaskopisi.

Rapanta, C., Botturi, L., Goodyear, P., Guardia, L., & Koole, M. (2020). Online University Teaching During and After the COVID-19 Crisis: Refocusing Teacher Presence and Learning Activity. Postdigital Science Education, 2, 923-945.

Sato, E., & Chen, J. C. (2021). Rise to the Occasion: The Trajectory of a Novice Japanese Teacher’s First Online Teaching Through Action Research. Language Teaching Research, 25(2), 306-329. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168819846794.

Schroedler, T., Lengyel, D., Budde, J., Claus, C., Weuster, N., & Doden, K. (2022). Remote Learning and its Effects on the Well-Being of Primary School Learners in Germany. Education 3-13. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004279.2022.2029525.

Scrimshaw, P. (2004). Enabling Teachers to Make Successful Use of ICT. British Educational Communications and Technology Agency.

Shraga-Roitman, Y., Hellwing, A., Almog, N., & Goffer, A. (2022). The Adjustment to Emergency Remote Teaching During the COVID-19 Global Crisis Among Diverse Students in Higher Education. Intercultural Education, 33(4), 367-379. 

https://doi.org/10.1080/14675986.2022.2090685.

Silverman, D. (2011). Interpreting Qualitative Data. A Guide to the Principles of Qualitative Research (5th ed.). SAGE.

Sonnenschein, S., & Stites, M. L. (2021). The Effects of Covid-19 on Young Children’s and their Parents’ Activities at Home. Early Education and Development, 32(6), 789-793. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2021.1953311.

Spiteri, J. (2021). Quality Early Childhood Education for All and the Covid-19 Crisis: A Viewpoint. Prospects, 51, 143-148. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-020-09528-4.

Stites, M. L., Sonneschein, S., & Galczyk, S. H. (2021). Preschool Parents’ Views of Distance Learning During COVID-19. Early Education and Development, 32(7), 923-939. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2021.1930936.

Suggate, S. P., & Martzog, P. (2022). Preschool Screen-Media Usage Predicts Mental Imagery Two Years Later. Early Child Development and Care, 192(10), 1659-1672. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2021.1924164.

Szente, J. (2020). Live Virtual Sessions with Toddlers and Preschoolers Amid COVID-19: Implications for Early Childhood Teacher Education. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 28, 373-390.

Tarrant, K., & Nagasawa, M. (2020). New York Early Care and Education Survey: Understanding the Impact Of COVID-19 On New York Early Childhood System. New York Early Childhood Professional Development Institute. URL (last checked 01 January 2024). https://educate.bankstreet.edu/sc/2.

Trust, T., & Whalen, J. (2021). Emergency Remote Teaching with Technology During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Using the Whole Teacher Lens to Examine Educator’s Experiences and Insights. Educational Media International, 58(2), 145-160.

https://doi.org/10.1080/09523987.2021.1930479.

Tzilou, G., & Papadimitriou, S. Th. (2021). Distance Education in The Kindergarten: A Case Study of the Use of The Webex and E-Class Learning Environments During the Pandemic of Covid-19. Open Education -The Journal for Open and Distance Edu-cation and Educational Technology, 17(2), 6-22. URL (last checked 01 January 2024).

https://ejournals.epublishing.ekt.gr/index.php/openjournal/article/view/25412/22043.

UK Government. (2022). Research and Analysis. Education Recovery in Early Years Providers: Summer 2022. URL (last checked 01 January 2024). https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/education-recovery-in-early-years-providers-summer-2022/education-recovery-in-early-years-providers-summer-2022#readiness-for-the-next-stage-of-education.

UNESCO Institute for Statistics, UNICEF, The World Bank, & The OECD. (2022). From Learning Recovery to Education Transformation. Insights and Reflections from the 4th Survey on National Education Responses to Covid-19 School Closures. URL (last checked 01 January 2024)

https://thedocs.worldbank.org/en/doc/523b6ac03f2c643f93b9c043d48eddc1-0200022022/related/From-Learning-Recovery-to-Education-Transformation-Main-Report.pdf.

UNESCO, United Nations Children’s Fund, & World Bank. (2020). Global Guidance on Reopening Early Childhood Education Settings. URL (last checked 01 January 2024). https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000374373.

UNESCO. (2020a). COVID-19 Educational Disruption and Response. URL (last checked 01 January 2024) 

https://en.unesco.org/news/covid-19-educational-disruption-and-response.

UNESCO. (2020b). UN Secretary-General Warns of Education Catastrophe, Pointing to UNESCO Estimate Of 24 Million Learners at Risk of Dropping Out. Press Release No.2020-73. URL (last checked 01 January 2024). https://en.unesco.org/news/secretary-general-warns-education-catastrophepointing-unesco-estimate-24-million-learners-risk.

UNESCO. (2020c). Crisis-sensitive Educational Planning. UNESCO COVID-19 Education Response. Education Sector Issue Notes. Issue Note no 2.4-April 2020. URL (last checked 01 January 2024) https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000373272.

UNESCO. (2021). Supporting Learning Recovery One Year Into COVID-19: The Global Education Coalition in Action. URL (last checked 01 January 2024) https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000376061.

UNESCO. (2023, April 20). Education in a Post-COVID World: Nine Ideas for Public Action. https://www.unesco.org/en/articles/education-post-covid-world-nine-ideas-public-action.

UNICEF. (n.d.). Covid-19 and Children. URL (last checked 01 January 2024). https://data.unicef.org/covid-19-and-children/.

Yildiz, S., Kilic, G. N., & Acar, I. H. (2022). Early Childhood Education During the Covid-19 Outbreak: The Perceived Changing Roles of Preschool Administrators, Teachers, and Parents. Early Childhood Education Journal. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-022-01339-w.

How to cite this paper

Distance Education in Early Childhood Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Teachers' and Parents' Perspectives and Experiences in Greece

How to cite this paper: Vassiliki Pliogou, Harilaos Zaragas, Sophia Tromara, Athina Koliopoulou, Efthymios Papatzikis. (2024). Distance Education in Early Childhood Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Teachers' and Parents' Perspectives and Experiences in Greece.The Educational Review, USA, 8(1), 1-19.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/er.2024.01.001