International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture

ISSN Print: 2578-3467 Downloads: 122035 Total View: 2263819
Frequency: quarterly ISSN Online: 2578-3475 CODEN: IJFSJ3

Agro-Based Sensor’s Deployment for Environmental Anticipation: An Experimental Effort for Minimal Usage of Water within Agricultural Practices

Abhishek Khanna

Research Scholar, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala, Punjab 147004, India.

*Corresponding author: Abhishek Khanna

Published: July 14,2020


Agriculture plays an imperative role in the financial development of a country and provides the main source of income, food, employment specifically to the rural sector. In India, around 80% of the population is dependent upon agriculture as it is the primary source of income. Farmers make use of water for irrigation purpose and do not estimate its precise requirement. However, in reality, the requirement of water content is comparatively much lower than the one that is utilized. The irrigation system across the world can be more efficient if incorporation of automated systems is introduced, in order to estimate the precise amount of water requirement among fields. Hence, in order to overcome the concern of making minimal use of water for irrigation, Agro Based Decision Support System (AbDSS) has been proposed in the article. The proposed framework is proficient enough to help farmers correctly identify the precise need for water by their respective farms. The framework incorporates various agricultural sensors, i.e., soil moisture sensor, soil temperature sensor, and soil humidity sensor along with a computational cloud server, i.e., ThingSpeak. The proposed framework not only provides remote access for obtaining current farm parameters without being physically present at the site, reduces much of human energy, and results in increased efficiency. In addition, the water supply can be controlled remotely using the interface by making use of an electric valve and a relay installed on the nozzle.


[1] S. Bhuiyan, M. Sattar, M. Khan. (1995). Improving water use efficiency in rice irrigation through wet-seeding. Irrigation Science, 16(1): 1-8.

[2] A. D. Roy, T. Shah. (2002). Socio-ecology of groundwater irrigation in India, Intensive use of groundwater challenges and opportunities (2002): 307-335.

[3] R. Rattan, S. Datta, P. Chhonkar, K. Suribabu, A. Singh. (2005). Long-term impact of irrigation with sewage effluents on heavy metal content in soils, crops and groundwatera case study. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 109(3-4): 310-322.

[4] L. Richards, L. Weaver. (1944). Moisture retention by some irrigated soils as related to soil moisture tension. Journal of Agri-cultural Research, 69(6): 215-235.

[5] N. Edlefsen, A. Anderson, et al. (1943). Thermodynamics of soil moisture. Hilgardia, 15(2): 31-298.

[6] O. T. Denmead, R. H. Shaw. (1962). Availability of soil water to plants as affected by soil moisture content and meteorological conditions 1. Agronomy Journal, 54(5), 385-390.

[7] G. S. Campbell, M. D. Campbell. (1982). Irrigation scheduling using soil moisture measurements: theory and practice. Advances in Irrigation, 1(1982): 25-42.

[8] N. Bhawarkar, D. Pande, R. Sonone, M. Aaquib, P. Pandit, P. Patil. (2014). Literature review for automated water supply with monitoring the performance system. International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, 4(5): 3328-3331.

[9] Z. Zhang. (2004). Investigation of wireless sensor networks for precision agriculture. in: 2004 ASAE Annual Meeting, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 2004, p. 1.

[10] S.-e. Yoo, J.-e. Kim, T. Kim, S. Ahn, J. Sung, D. Kim. (2007). A2S: Automated Agriculture System Based on WSN, in: Con-sumer Electronics, 2007. ISCE 2007. IEEE International Symposium on, IEEE, 2007, pp. 1-5.

[11] A. Z. Abbasi, N. Islam, Z. A. Shaikh, et al. (2014). A review of wireless sensors and networks’ applications in agriculture, Computer Standards & Interfaces 36(2): 263-270.

[12] X. Li, Y. Deng, L. Ding. (2008). Study on precision agriculture monitoring framework based on WSN, in: Anti-counterfeiting, Security and Identification, 2008. ASID 2008. 2nd International Conference on, IEEE, 2008, pp. 182-185.

[13] V. I. Adamchuk, J. Hummel, M. Morgan, S. Upadhyaya. (2004). On-the-go soil sensors for precision agriculture, Computers and electronics in agriculture, 44(1): 71-91.

[14] M. Sivapalan, R. A.Woods. (1995). Evaluation of the effects of general circulation models’ subgrid variability and patchiness of rainfall and soil moisture on land surface water balance fluxes, Hydrological Processes, 9(5-6): 697-717.

[15] [link]URL

[16] M. A. Hamad, M. E. S. Eltahir, A. E. M. Ali, A. M. Hamdan. Efficiency of using smart-mobile phones in accessing agricultural information by smallholder farmers in north kordofan–sudan, Available at SSRN 3240758.

[17] F. Balducci, D. Impedovo, G. Pirlo. (2018). Machine learning applications on agricultural datasets for smart farm enhancement, Machines, 6(3): 38.

[18] J. S. Duhan, R. Kumar, N. Kumar, P. Kaur, K. Nehra, S. Duhan. (2017). Nanotechnology: The new perspective in precision agriculture, Biotechnology Reports, 15(2017): 11-23.

[19] G. Severino, G. DUrso, M. Scarfato, G. Toraldo. (2018). The IoT as a tool to combine the scheduling of the irrigation with the geostatistics of the soils, Future Generation Computer Systems.

[20] H. L. Tuomisto, P. F. Scheelbeek, Z. Chalabi, R. Green, R. D. Smith, A. Haines, A. D. Dangour. (2017). Effects of environ-mental change on agriculture, nutrition and health: A framework with a focus on fruits and vegetables, Wellcome open research 2.

[21] H. Navarro-Hell´ın, R. Torres-Sa´nchez, F. Soto-Valles, C. Albaladejo-Pe´rez, J. A. Lo´pez-Riquelme, R. Domingo- Miguel. (2015). A wireless sensors architecture for efficient irrigation water management, Agricultural Water Management, 151(2015): 64-74.

[22] T. Ojha, S. Misra, N. S. Raghuwanshi. (2015). Wireless sensor networks for agriculture: The state-of-the-art in practice and future challenges, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 118(2015): 66-84.

[23] G. Rameshaiah, J. Pallavi, S. Shabnam. (2015). Nano fertilizers and nano sensors—an attempt for developing smart agriculture, Int J Eng Res Gen Sci, 3(1): 314-320.

[24] K. X. Soulis, S. Elmaloglou, N. Dercas. (2015). Investigating the effects of soil moisture sensors positioning and accuracy on soil moisture based drip irrigation scheduling systems, Agricultural Water Management, 148: 258-268.

[25] S. L. SU, D. Singh, M. S. Baghini. (2014). A critical review of soil moisture measurement, Measurement, 54(2014): 92-105.

[26] H. Mittelbach, I. Lehner, S. I. Seneviratne. (2012). Comparison of four soil moisture sensor types under field conditions in Switzerland, Journal of Hydrology 430(2012): 39-49.

[27] R.-b. Zhang, J.-j. Guo, L. Zhang, Y.-c. Zhang, L.-h. Wang, Q. Wang. (2011). A calibration method of detecting soil water content based on the information-sharing in wireless sensor network, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 76(2): 161-168.

[28] J. Xia, Z. Tang, X. Shi, L. Fan, H. Li. (2011). An environment monitoring system for precise agriculture based on wireless sensor networks, in: Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Networks (MSN), 2011 Seventh International Conference on, IEEE, 2011, pp. 28-35.

[29] G. Vellidis, M. Tucker, C. Perry, C. Kvien, C. Bednarz. (2008). A real-time wireless smart sensor array for scheduling irrigation, Computers and electronics in agriculture, 61(1): 44-50.

[30] N. Wang, N. Zhang, M. Wang. (2006). Wireless sensors in agriculture and food industry recent development and future pers-pective, Computers and electronics in agriculture, 50(1): 1-14.

[31] B. Domenico, J. Caron, E. Davis, S. Nativi, L. Bigagli. (2006). Galeon: standards-based web services for interoperability among earth sciences data systems, in: Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2006. IGARSS 2006. IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, 2006, pp. 313-316.

[32] V. M. Quan, G. S. Gupta, S. Mukhopadhyay. (2011). Review of sensors for greenhouse climate monitoring, in: Sensors Appli-cations Symposium (SAS), 2011 IEEE, IEEE, 2011, pp. 112-118.

[33] N. Tianlong. (2010). Application of single bus sensor dht11 in temperature humidity measure and control system [J], Micro-controllers & Embedded Systems, 6(2010): 026.

[34] Z. Alliance. What is zigbee?

[35] G. of Punjab. Economic and Statistical Organisation, Govt. of Punjab, publication No. 954 Edition.

[36] R. Morais, M. A. Fernandes, S. G. Matos, C. Seroˆdio, P. Ferreira, M. Reis. (2008). Azigbeemulti-poweredwireless acquisition device for remote sensing applications in precision viticulture, Computers and electronics in agriculture, 62(2): 94-106.

[37] M. Keshtgari, A. Deljoo. (2012). A wireless sensor network solution for precision agriculture based on zigbee technology, Wireless Sensor Network, 4(1): 25.

[38] S. Salvi, S. F. Jain, H. Sanjay, T. Harshita, M. Farhana, N. Jain, M. Suhas. (2017). Cloud based data analysis and monitoring of smart multi-level irrigation system using iot, in: I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC), 2017 Inter-national Conference on, IEEE, 2017, pp. 752-757.

[39] R. O. Darko, Y. Shouqi, L. Junping, Y. Haofang, Z. Xingye. (2017). Overview of advances in improving uniformity and water use efficiency of sprinkler irrigation, International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 10(2): 1.

[40] R. Gonz´alezPerea, A. Daccache, J. Rodr´ıguezD´ıaz, E. Camacho Poyato, J. W. Knox. (2018). Modelling impacts of precision irrigation on crop yield and in-field water management.

[41] A. Tyagi, N. Gupta, J. Navani, M. R. Tiwari, M. A. Gupta. (2017). Smart irrigation system, International Journal for Innovative Research in Science & Technology, 3(10).

[42] F. Viani, M. Bertolli, M. Salucci, A. Polo. (2017). Low-cost wireless monitoring and decision support for water saving in agri-culture, IEEE Sensors Journal, 17(13): 4299-4309.

[43] T. Yamazaki, K. Miyakawa. (2017). Soil moisture sensing experiments for water management in pear fields, in: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Informatics, Environment, Energy and Applications, ACM, 2017, pp. 56-59.

[44] B. Kaur, K. Vatta, R. Sidhu. (2015). Optimising irrigation water use in Punjab agriculture: Role of crop diversification and technology, Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 70(3): 307.

[45] L. Levidow, D. Zaccaria, R. Maia, E. Vivas, M. Todorovic, A. Scardigno. (2014). Improving water-efficient irrigation: Prospects and difficulties of innovative practices, Agricultural Water Management, 146(2014): 84-94.

[46] K. Xiao, D. Xiao, X. Luo. (2010). Smart water-saving irrigation system in precision agriculture based on wireless sensor network, Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 26(11): 170-175.

[47] S. J. Zwart, W. G. Bastiaanssen. (2004). Review of measured crop water productivity values for irrigated wheat, rice, cotton and maize, Agricultural water management, 69(2): 115-133.

How to cite this paper

Agro-Based Sensor's Deployment for Environmental Anticipation: An Experimental Effort for Minimal Usage of Water within Agricultural Practices

How to cite this paper: Abhishek Khanna. (2020) Agro-Based Sensor's Deployment for Environmental Anticipation: An Experimental Effort for Minimal Usage of Water within Agricultural Practices. International Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 4(3), 219-236.