International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture

ISSN Print: 2578-3467 Downloads: 122050 Total View: 2263933
Frequency: quarterly ISSN Online: 2578-3475 CODEN: IJFSJ3

Maize Seed Production Under Climate-Smart Agriculture Techniques as a Response to Climate Change Effects

Blair Moses Kamanga 1,*, Thomas Mpiluwa 2, Courage Yaw Krah 2, Akeme Cyril Njume 2, Nadiya Iftiwata Rahmah 3

1 Department of Agriculture Research, Pesticides Control Board, Bvumbwe Agricultural Research Station, P.O. Box 51300, Limbe, Malawi.

2 Department of Mechanical and Biosystems Engineering, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia.

3 Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia.

*Corresponding author: Blair Moses Kamanga

Published: July 29,2020


Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) techniques to effects of climate change, i.e., dry spells on ma-ize seed production. The trials evaluated growth characteristics, yield, and seed quality parameters. CSA techniques such as minimum tillage with dead mulch, zero tillage with mulch, minimum tillage with roundup, pit planting, zero tillage with live cover and control (conventional farming) were laid off in RCBD with four replicates. Results indicated that CSA techniquessignificantly increased plant height, the number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index, total dry matter accumulation, yield and yield components even though the cropping season was associated with prolonged dry spells. Maize seed grown under minimum tillage with dead mulch (maize stover as a cover) significantly increased production of maize seed with dry cob yield (8.92 ton ha-1), seed grain yield (4.45 ton ha-1), 1000-seeds weight (386.9g), and highest germination percentage, seed vigor in-dex and germination energy of 1,127 and 80.24%, respectively. Maize seed can be produced under climate-smart agriculture techniques and still maintain high seed quality than under conventional system.


[1] FAO. (2013). Climate-smart Agriculture Sourcebook. Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

[2] Fraser, E. D. G., Simelton, E., Termansen M., Gosling S. N. and South A. (2013). “Vulnerabilityhotspots”: integrating socio-economic and hydrological models to identify where cereal production may decline in the future due to climate change-induced drought. Journal of Agricultur and Forest, 170, 195-205.

[3] Ludwig, F. and Asseng, S. (2006). Climate change impacts on wheat production in theMediterranean environment in Western Australia. Agricultural Systems, 90: 159-179.

[4] Springate, D. A. and Kover, P. X. (2014). Plant responses to elevated temperatures: a field study onphenological sensitivity and fitness responses to simulated climate warming. Global Change Biology, 20, 456-465.

[5] GAP. (2014). Guide to Agriculture Production in Malawi. Lilongwe: Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security.

[6] Giller, K. E., Witter, E., Corbeels, M. and Tittonell, P. (2009). Conservation agriculture and smallholderfarming in Africa: the heretics’ view. Field Crops Research, 114, 23-34.

[7] Buah, S. S. J., Ibrahim, H., Derigubah, M., Kuzie, M., Segtaa, J. V., Bayala, J., Zougmore, R. and Ouedraogo, M. (2017). Tillage and fertilizer effect on maize and soybean yields in the Guinea savanna zoneof Ghana. Agriculture and Food Security, 6(1), 1-7.

[8] Lahmar, R., Bationo, B. A., Lamso, N. D., Guero, Y., and Tittonell, P. (2012). Tailoring conservation agriculture technologies to West Africa semi-arid zones: building on traditional local practices for soil restoration. Field Crops Research, 132, 158-167.

[9] Masse, D., Hien, E., Kabore, T., Bilgo, A., Hien, V., and Chotte, J. L. (2011). Evaluation of farming practicesin sub-Saharan region confronted by demographic and climatic changes: runoff control andorganic matter resources management. Procedia Environmental Science, 9, 124-129.

[10]  Sawadogo, H. (2011). Using soil and water conservation techniques to rehabilitate degraded lands in northwestern Burkina Faso. Internatinal Journal of Agriculture Sustainability, 1(9), 120-128.

[11] Obalum, S. E., Igwe, C. A. and Obi, M. E. (2012). Soil moisture dynamics under rainfed sorghum andsoybean on contrasting tillagemulch seedbeds in a mineral sandy loam at derivedsavanna ofsouth-eastern Nigeria. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 11(58), 1205-1227.

[12]  ISTA. (2014). International Rules for Seed Testing. International Seed Testing Association Bassersdorf, Switzerland.

[13]  Grashoff, C., Dijkstra, P., Nonhebel, S., Schapendonk, A. H. C. M., and Van de Geijn, S. C. (1995). Effects of climate change on the productivity of cereals and legumes, model evaluation of observed year-to-yearvariability of the CO2 response. Global Change Biology, 1(6), 417-428.

[14]  Muhammad, A., Muhammad, A. M., and Cengiz, R. (2015). Drought stress in maize (Zea mays L.) effects, resistance mechanisms, global achievements and biological strategies for improvement. Springer, Netherland, 1, 1-75. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-25442-5.

[15]  Karasu, A., Kușcu, H. and Öz, M. and Bayram, G. (2015). The effect of different irrigation water levels on grain yield, yield components and some quality parameters of silage Maize in the Marmara region of Turkey. Notulae Botanicae Horticulture Agrobotanici Clujeană-Napoca, 1(43), 138-145. doi: 10.15835/nbha4319602.

[16]  Khan, M. B., Hussain, N., and Ii, M. (2001). Effects of water stress on growth and yield components of maize Variety YHS202. Journal of Research (science), 12(1), 15-18.

[17]  Mansouri, C., Modarres, S. A. and Saberali, S. F. (2010). Maize yield response to deficit irrigation duringlow-sensitive growth stages and nitrogen rate under semi-arid climatic conditions. Agricultural Water Management, 97(1), 12-22.

[18]  Wildemeersch, J. C., Timmerman, E., Mazijn, B., Sabiou, M., Ibro, G., Garba, M. and Cornelis, W. (2015a). Assessing the constraints to adopt water and soil conservation techniques in Tillaberi, Niger. Land Degradation and Development, 5(26), 491-501.

[19]  Giller, K. E., Witter, E., Corbeels, M., and Tittonell, P. (2009). Conservation agriculture and smallholder farming in Africa: The heretics’ view. Field Crops Research, 114, 23-34.

[20]  Bayala, J., Sileshi, G. W., Coe, R., Kalinganire, A., Tchoundjeu, Z., Sinclair, F., and Garrity, D. (2012). Cereal yield response to conservation agriculture practices in drylands of West Africa: a quantitative synthesis. Journal of Arid Environment, 78, 13-25.

[21] Goggi, A. S., Caragea, P., Pollak, L., MacAndrews, G., Devries, M. and Montgomery, K. (2008). Seed quality assurance in maize breeding programs: Tests to explain variations in maize inbreds andpopulations. Agronomy Journal, 100, 337-343.

[22]  Santos, B. (2010). Seed quality and seeding technology. Horticultural Sciences Department University of Florida Extension Bulletin Cooperative Extension Services. Florida, USA. : Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS).

[23]  Schussler J. R, Westgate M. E. (1991). Maize kernel set at low water potential. 1. Sensitivity to reducedassimilates during early kernel growth. Crop Science, 31, 1189-1195.

[24]  Çakir, R. (2004). Effect of water stress at different development stages on vegetative and reproductive growth of corn. Field Crops Research, 89: 1-16.

[25]  Schär C, Vidale PL, Lüthi D, Frei C, Häberli C, Liniger MA, Appenzeller C. (2004). The role of increasing temperature variability in European summer heatwaves. Nature, 427, 332-336.

[26]  Stratonovitch P, Semenov, M. A. (2015). Heat tolerance around flowering in wheat identified as a key trait for increased yield potential in Europe under climate change. Journal of Experimental Botany, 66(12), 3599-3609, doi:10.1093/jxb/erv070.

[27]   Dore, M. (2005). Climate change and changes in global precipitation patterns: what do we know? Environ Int, 31, 1167-1181.

[28]  RStudio Team. (2015). RStudio: Integrated Development for R. RStudio, Inc., Boston, MA URL

[29]  Romano-Armada N, Amoroso MJ, Rajal VB. (2017). Effect of glyphosate application on soil quality and health under natural and zero tillage field conditions. Soil Environment, 36(2), 141-154, DOI:10.25252/SE/17/51241.

[30]  Mafongoya P, Jiri1 O, Phophi M. (2016). Evaluation of tillage practices for maize (Zea mays) grown on different land-Use systems in eastern Zambia. Sustainable Agriculture Research, 5(1): 10-23.

How to cite this paper

Maize Seed Production Under Climate-Smart Agriculture Techniques as a Response to Climate Change Effects

How to cite this paper: Blair Moses Kamanga, Thomas Mpiluwa, Courage Yaw Krah, Akeme Cyril Njume, Nadiya Iftiwata Rahmah. (2020) Maize Seed Production Under Climate-Smart Agriculture Techniques as a Response to Climate Change Effects. International Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 4(3), 249-255.