Hill Publishing Group | contact@hillpublisher.com

Hill Publishing Group

Location:Home / Journals / International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture /

DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijfsa.2021.03.010

Chemical Constituents of Melon Testa and Rice Husk Powders and Their Potential as Protectant Against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

Date: February 4,2021 |Hits: 825 Download PDF How to cite this paper

Akinbuluma Mobolade Dele*, Olaniran Maryam Oyeteju

Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: Akinbuluma Mobolade Dele

Abstract

This study examined the effects of powdered testa of melon Citrullus vulgaris Schrad and husks of rice, Oryza sativa L. on adult C. maculatus and to determine the phytochemicals responsible for their insecticidal property. The experiment was carried out in the laboratory (temperature, 24±4ᵒC; r.h, 70±3%). Thirty grammes (30 g) of cowpea seeds were weighed into each of eight kilner jars and admixed with melon testa and rice husk powders at dosages 1.6% (w/w), 3.2% (w/w) and 4.8% (w/w) and mesh sizes, 200mm and 500mm. The experiment was conducted relative to untreated control and pirimiphos-methyl (synthetic chemical). Each jar was infested with 5 pairs of 1-2-day old adult C. maculatus and laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (r = 4). Secondary metabolites in the plant samples were determined following standard procedures. Data collected, including mortality, oviposition and adult emergence of C. maculatus as well as weight loss in cowpea seeds were analyzed using ANOVA and means separated using DMRT at 5% level of significance. Percentage mortality of C. maculates ranged from 0% to 97% on seeds treated with both melon testa powder and rice husk powders. Mortality of C. maculatus from the highest dose of both powders received from 500 mm was not significantly different (P < 0.05) from mortality in pirimiphos-methyl treated seeds. Oviposition by female C. maculates reduced from 12.5 in the untreated control to 6.3 and 6.5 on seeds admixed with melon testa powder and rice husk powder, respectively. Significantly lower adult emergence and reduced weight loss were also observed on seeds treated with both powders than on the untreated control. Phytochemical investigations revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, flavanoids, terpenoids, antraquinones, phenols and alkaloids in both powders. In addition, cardiac glycosides were also present in the melon testa powder. Therefore, melon testa and rice husk powders can be used as a grain protectant against Callosobruchus maculatus to reduce the attendant problems with the use of synthetic chemicals thus ensuring food safety and security.

References

[1] Singh, B. B., Ehlers, J. D., Sharma, B., Freire Filho, F. R. (2002). Recent progress in cowpea breeding. In: Fatokun C. A., Ta-rawali, S. A., Singh, B. B., Kormawa, P. M., Tamo, M. (eds.). Challenges and Opportunities for Enhancing Sustainable Cowpea Production. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria, pp. 22-40.

[2] Langyintuo, A. S., Lowenberg-DeBoer, J., Faye, M., Lambert, D., Ibro, G., Moussa, B., Kergna, A., Kushwaha, S., Musa, S. and Ntoukam G. (2003). Cowpea supply and demand in West Africa. Field Crops Resistance, 82, 215-231.

[3] Chaubey, M. K. (2008). Fumigant Toxicity of Essential Oils from Some Common Spices against Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Journal of oleo science, 57(3), 171-179.

[4] Ekeh, F. N., Onah, I. E., Atama, C. I., Ivoke, N., and Eyo, J. E. (2013). Effectiveness of botanical powders against Calloso-bruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in some stored leguminous grains under laboratory conditions. African Journal of Biotechnology, 12(12), 1384-1391.

[5] Ileke, K. D. and Olotuah, O. F. (2012). Bioactivity of Anacardium occidentale (L) and Allium sativum (L) Powders and Oils Extracts against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). International Journal of Bi-ology, 4, 6-103.

[6] Isman, M. B. (2008). Botanical Insecticides: For richer, for poorer. Pest Management Science, 64: 8-11. 

[7] Aboaba, S. A., Mobilawon, F. E., and Akinbuluma, M. D. (2019). Chemical constituent and insecticidal activity of the essential oils from Thevetia neriifolia Juss. on Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of Entomology and Zo-ology Studies, 7, 394-400.

[8] Idoko, J. E. and Adesina, J. M. (2012). Evaluation of the powder of Piper guineense and pirimiphos-Methly for the control of cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Journal of Agricultural Technology, 8(4), 1365-1374.

[9] Idoko J. E. (2015). Entomotoxic effects of banana peel extract and powder against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) infesting cowpea in storage. In: Amos, T. T., Adekunle, V. A. J., and Badejo, A. A. (Editors): Food security and climate change: The way forward. Proceedings 8th Annual Agricultural Conference, The Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria, pp. 103-106.

[10] Akinbuluma, M. D. and Adeyemi, W. A. (2017). Laboratory evaluation of Cedrela odorata (L) for the management of cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in Ibadan Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Ecology, 16(2), 120-127. 

[11] Akinbuluma, M. D. (2020). Volatile oils from Cedrela odorata L. as protectants against Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Cur-culionidae). American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products, 8(3), 20-29.

[12] Nwaubani, S. I., Opit, G. P., Otitodun, G. O. and Adesida, M. A. (2014). Efficacy of two Nigeria derived diatomaceous earths against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) on wheat. Journal of Stored Products Research, 59, 9-16.

[13] Otitodun, G. O., Opit, G. P., Nwaubani, S. I., Okonkwo, and Gautam, S. G. (2015). Efficacy of Nigeria-derived diatomaceous earth, botanicals and riverbed sand against Sitophilus oryzae andRhyzopertha dominicaon wheat. African Crop Science Journal, 23(3), 279-293.

[14] King, R. D. and Onuora, O. J. (1983). Aspects of melon seed protein characteristics. Food Chemistry, 14, 65-77.

[15] El-Adaway, T. A. and Taha, K. M. (2001). Characteristics and composition of different seed oils and flours. Food Chemistry, 74, 47-54.

[16] Edelduok, E., Akpabio, E., Eyo, J., and Ekpe, E. (2012). Bio-insecticidal potentials of testa powder of melon, Citrullus vulgaris Schrad for reducing infestation of maize grains by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch, Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 2(8), 13-17.

[17] Abbott W. S. (1925). A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology, 18, 265-267. 

[18] Oloyede, I. O. (2005). Chemical Profile of Unripe Pulp of Carica papaya. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 4(6), 379-381.

[19] Akinbuluma, M. D. Yeye, E. O., and Ewete, F. K. (2015). Qualitative Phytochemical screening of Acalypha fimbriata, and its methanol extract as protectant against Sitophilus zeamais on stored maize. Journal of Natural Science Research, 5, 122-132.

[20] Caswell, G. H. (1981). Damage to stored cowpeas in northern Nigeria. Samaru Journal of Agricultural Research, 1, 11-19.

[21] Sokker, R. F., Hussein, M. A., Salwa, M. S. Ahmed, and Ragaa, K. A. Hamed. (2012). Effect of katel-sous dust and clove powder and their mixtures on the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Egyptian Aca-demic Journal of Biological Science, 4(1), 3-33.

[22] Okonkwo, E. U. and Okoye, W. I. (1996). The efficacy of four seed powders and the essential oils as protectants of cowpea and maize grains against infestation by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in Nigeria. International Journal of Pest Management, 42, 143-146.

[23] Akinbuluma, M. D. and Ewete, F. K. (2014). Comparative efficacy of extracts of Azadirachta indica and Piper guineense with pirimiphos - methyl in the control of Sitophilus zeamais on stored maize. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Health care, 4, 327-335.

[24] Wakako, O., Shuichi, D., Masakazu, A., and Sciji, O. (2012). Antifeedant activity of flavonoids and related compounds against the subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Journal of Wood Science, 46(2), 149-153.

[25] De Geyter, E., Geelen, D., and Smagghe, G. (2007). First results on the insecticidal action of saponins. Communication in Ag-ricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, 72(3), 645-648.

[26] Chaieb, I. (2010). Saponins as insecticides: a review. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection, 5, 39-50.

[27] Wanjala, W. C., Teresa, A., George, O. O., and Kweyu, P. L. (2009). Antifeedant activities of the Erythrinaline Alkaloids from Erythrina latissima against Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Record of National Production, 3(2), 96-103.

[28] Akinbuluma, M. D., Ewete, F. K., and Torto, B. (2017). Isolation and identification of compounds from Piper guineense seed extract for the management of Sitophilus zeamais on stored maize. In Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceedings of the First All Africa Postharvest Congress and Exhibition on Reducing food losses and waste: Sustainable Solutions for Africa held at Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya between 28th and 31st March, 2017. 

[29] Duke, S. D. (1991). Plant terpenoids as pesticides: toxicology of plant and fungal compounds. In Handbook of Natural Toxins. Pp. 269-289.

How to cite this paper

Chemical Constituents of Melon Testa and Rice Husk Powders and Their Potential as Protectant Against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

How to cite this paper: Akinbuluma Mobolade Dele, Olaniran Maryam Oyeteju. (2021) Chemical Constituents of Melon Testa and Rice Husk Powders and Their Potential as Protectant Against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)International Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture5(1), 69-75.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijfsa.2021.03.010

Volumes & Issues

Free HPG Newsletters

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from Hill Publishing Group.

Contact us

Hill Publishing Group

8825 53rd Ave

Elmhurst, NY 11373, USA

E-mail: contact@hillpublisher.com

Copyright © 2019 Hill Publishing Group Inc. All Rights Reserved.