Hill Publishing Group | contact@hillpublisher.com

Hill Publishing Group

Location:Home / Journals / Journal of Humanities, Arts and Social Science /

DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/jhass.2021.01.010

Monumental Architecture, Settlement Landscape, and Climate Change at El Infiernito, Colombia

Date: April 14,2021 |Hits: 235 Download PDF How to cite this paper

Michael P. Smyth

The Foundation for Americas Research, Inc., USA.

*Corresponding author: Michael P. Smyth

Abstract

The ancient Muisca in the Valley of Leiva of the Eastern Andean Cordillera were monument buildings strongly influenced by climate change. Research at El In-fiernito, the Stonehenge of Colombia, examined socio-environmental contexts related to the impacts of drought, flooding, and erosion vital to the development of past chiefdom societies. Chiefly elites responded to adverse water-related conditions by engineering a hydraulic landscape but also modified their built environment employing stone architecture and stone monuments that embodied reli-gious and celestial cosmology. Investigations at a rare stone building and the discovery of nearby human burials begin to show evidence for a chiefly compound at El Infiernito. Reconnaissance nearby also located new irrigation works and astronomical-related monuments that appears to correspond to a quintuple planetary grouping visible in 710 AD. These data show that elites employed both tangible and intangible responses to overcome limitations posed by the natural and cultural environments.

References

Acosta, Joaquin. (1850). Carta escrita a J. Jomard (Letter written to J. Jomard). www.lablaa.org/blaavirtual/ letrab/bio/bio45.htm. 

Ancízar, M. (1983). Peregrinación de Alpha. Por las provincias del norte de la Nueva Granada, en 1850-51 (The Pilgrimage of Alpha in the Northern Provinces of New Granada, 1850-51). Editorial Incunables, Bogotá, Colombia [1851].

Beach, Timothy., Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl, and Lohse, Jon. (2013). Landscape Formation and Agriculture in the Wet-lands of Northwestern Belize. In Jon C. Lohse, ed., Classic Maya Political Ecology. UCLA Cotsen Institute of Arc-haeology Press, Los Angeles, pp. 43-67. ISBN 978-1-931745-70-3.

Beach, Timothy, S. (2015). Keynote on Soil and Sediment Transfers in Middle America at the PAGES working group on Global Soil and Sediment Transfers in the Anthropocene (GloSS) at the Department of Geography, University of Bonn, Germany, 19th-21st August. 

Boada Rivas, Ana María. (1998). Bases of Social Hierarchy in the Muisca Central Village of the Northeastern Highlands of Colombia. Universityof Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh. 

Boada Rivas, Ana María. (2000). Variabilidad mortuoria y organización social muisca en la sabana de Bogotá. En Sociedades complejas de la sabana de Bogotá, siglos VII al XVI d. C., Mortuary variability and Muisca social organización of the Savanna of Bogota, B. Enciso, M. Therrien eds. Instituto Colombiano de Antropología e Historia, Colombian Institute of Anthropology and History (ICANH): Bogotá, Colombia.

Boada Rivas, Ana María. (2006). Patrones de asentamiento regional y sistemas de agricultura intensiva en Cota y Suba, Sabana de Bogotá, (Colombia), Regional settlement patterns and systems of intensive agriculture in Cota and Suba, Savanna of Bogotá. FIAN, Banco de la Republica, Bank of the Republic, Bogotá.  

Boada Rivas, Ana María. (2007). The Evolution of Social Hierarchy in a Muisca Chiefdom of the Northern Andes of Colombia. University of Pittsburgh Memoirs in Latin American Archaeology No. 17, Pittsburgh. ISBN 987-1-877812-83-5.

Botiva, Alvaro. (1989). La altiplanicie cundiboyacense. En Colombia prehispánica regiones arqueológicas, The Cundiboyacense highplataeu. In Prehispanic archaeological regions of Colombia. ICANH: Bogotá, Colombia, pp. 77-116.  

Broadbent, Sylvia. (1968). A Prehistoric Field System in Chibcha Territory, Colombia. Ñawpa Pacha 6:135-147.

de Meis, Salvo and Meeus, Jean. (1994). Quintuple planetary groupings—Rarity, historical events, and popular beliefs. Journal of the British Astronomical Association 104: 6. 

Drennan, Robert. (1995). Mortuary Practices in the Alto Magdalena: the Social Content of the San Augustin Culture. In Tombs for the Living: Andean Mortuary Practices, T. Dillehay, ed. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collec-tion, Washington, D.C. Pp. 79-110. ISBN-10: 0884023745.

Duque Gómez, Luis. (1964). Exploraciones Arqueológicas en San Augustin. Archaeological Explorations at San Augustin. Revista Colombiano de Antropología, Suplemento No. 1, Instituto Colombiano de Antropología, Imprenta Nacional, Bogotá, Colombia. 

Falchetti, Ana Maria. (1975). Arqueología de Sutamarchán. Archaeology of Sutamarchan. Biblioteca Banco Popular, Popular Bank Library, Bogotá, Colombia. 

Henderson, Hope. and Ostler, Nicholas. (2005). Muisca Settlement Organization and Chiefly Authority at Suta, Valle de Leyva, Colombia: A Critical Appraisal of Native Concepts of House for Studies of Complex Societies. Journal of Anthropological Archeology 24(2): 148-178. ISSN: 0278-4165.

Herrera, Leonor and Cárdale, Marianne. (2000). Caminos Precolombinos: Las Vías, los Ingenieros y los Viajeros. Precolombian Roads: The Vias, the Engineers, and Travelers. ICANH: Instituto Colombiano de Antropología e Historia, Bogotá.

Https://fourmilab.ch/cgi-bin?Yourtel?lat+19.8518&ns=North&....  

Ingativa Nuesa, Xieguazinsa. (2012). Resignación Cosmogónica Muisca Chibcha en el Valle de Zaquenzipá. En Villa de Leyva Historia y Legado, Bicentenario de la Consolidación del Congreso Nacional, Cosmogonic Resignation of the Chibcha Muisca in the Zaquenzipá Valley. In Villa de Leyva History and Legend, editado por E. Reyes M., V. Arenas V., eds. Villa de Leyva, Boyacá, Colombia, pp. 137-159. 

Kruschek, Michael. (2003). The Evolution of the Bogota Chiefdom: A Household View. University of Pittsburgh, Pitts-burgh. 

Langebaek, Carl H. (1995). Regional Archaeology in the Muisca Territory: A Study of the Fúquene and Susa Valleys. Memoirs in the Latin American Archaeology No. 9, University of Pittsburgh, Universidad de los Andes. Pittsburgh.  ISBN 1-877812-34-X.

Langebaek, Carl H. (2001). Arqueología regional en el Valle de Leiva: Procesos de ocupación humana en una región de los Andes Orientales de Colombia. Colección Informes Antropológicos, Regional archaeology in the Valley of Leiva: Processes of human occupation in a region of the Eastern Andes of Colombia. Anthropological Reports Collection, ICANH: Bogotá, Colómbia. ISBN 958-97054-2-1.

Langebaek, Carl H. (2005). Fiestas y Caciques Muiscas en el Infiernito, Colombia: Un Análisis de la Relación entre Festejos y Organización Política. Fiestas and Muisca Chiefdoms at El Infiernito, Colombia: Analysis of the Relationship between Festivals and Political Organization, Boletín de Arqueología, Archaeology Bulletin PUCP 9: 281-295. ISSN 1029-2004.

Langebaek, Carl H. (2013). Words, Things, and Text: El Infiernito, Archaeology, Documents and Ethnology in the Study of Muisca Society. In Against Typological Tyranny in Archaeology: A South American Perspective. ISBN 10:1461487234.

Moncada, Jaime. (1979). Informe comisión: Vereda de Monquirá sitio El Infiernito, Boyacá. Commision Report: Village of Monquirá El Infiernito Site, Boyacá. ICANH: Bogotá, Colombia.

Mora Pacheco, Katherinne Giselle. (2011). Prácticas Agrícolas Coloniales y Degradación del Suelo: El Caso de Saquencipá. Colonial Agricultural Practices and Degradation of Soils: The Case of Saquencipá. Revistaeográfica de América Central, Numero Especial, Geographic Review of Central America, Special Issue, EGAL 1-14.

Mora Pacheco, Katherinne Giselle. (2012). Livestock Farming in the Saquencipá Valley, New Kingdom of Granada, Co-lombia in the 16th and 17th Centuries. Pastos 42(2): 251-272.

Mora Pacheco, Katherinne Giselle. (2015). Prácticas agropecuarias coloniales y degradación del suelo en el Valle de Saquencipá, Provincia de Tunja, siglos XVI y XVII. Colonial Agricultural Practices and Degradation of Soils: The Case of Saquencipá, Province of Tunja, XVI and XVII Centuries. Bogotá: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Na-tional University of Colombia.  

Morales, Juan David. (2009). Archaeoastronomy in the Muisca Territory. Cosmology Across Cultures. ASP Conference Series 409: 272-276.

Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo. (1982). Astronomical Models of Social Behavior Among Some Indians of Colombia. An-nals of the New York Academy of Sciences 385: 165-181.

Restrepo, Vicente. (1972). Los chibchas antes de los conquista española-Atlas y Anexo arqueológicos, Biblioteca Banco Popular: The Chibchas before Spanish Conquest—Archaeological Atlas and Anexo of the Popular Bank Library: Bogotá, Colombia. [1895]

Salamanca, María Fernanda. (2000). Asentamientos tempranos en el valle de Sáchica, Boyacá. Tesis de grado. Early Settlements in the Valley of Sáchica, Boyacá. Graduate Thesis. Universidad de los Andes, University of the Andes: Bogotá, Colombia.  

Sáenz, Napoleón Ignacio. (1968). Villa de Leiva: tradiciones y anhelos. Litografía Ayudantía General Comando del Ejército, Villa de Leiva: traditions and desires. Lithograph Adjutancy of the Commanding General of the Army. Bogotá, Colombia. 

Salge Ferro, Manuel. (2007). Festejos Muiscas en el Infiernito, Valle de Leyva: La consolidación del Poder Social. Muisca Festivals at El Infiernito, Valley of Leyva: The Consolidation of Social Power. University of the Andes, Bogotá, Colombia. ISBN 978-958-695-287-3.

Silva Celis, Eliécer. (1945). Excavaciones Arqueológicas en Sogamoso. Archaeological Excavations in Sogamosa. En Boletín de Arqueología, In Bulletin of Archaeology. Vol. I: 93-112, Bogotá, Colombia. 

Silva Celis, Eliécer. (1981). Investigaciones arqueológicas en Villa de Leiva. Archaeological Investigations in Villa de Leyva. En Boletín del Museo del Oro, Año 4, Enero-Abril de 1981, In Bulletinofthe Gold Museum, January-April 1981. Banco de la República, Bank of the Republic, Bogotá, Colombia.

Silva Celis, Eliécer. (1983). Descubrimientos arqueológicos en Villa de Leiva. Comunicación científica preliminar. En Memorias II Congreso de Antropología en Colombia. Archaeological discoveries in Villa de Leyva. Preliminary scientific communiques. Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín. Tomo 1: 235-250. 

Simón, Pedro. (1981). Noticias historiales de las conquistas de Tierra Firme en las Indias occidentales. Historical record of the conquest of lands in the Western Indies. Biblioteca del Banco Popular, Popular Bank Library: Bogotá, Colombia [1627].

Smyth, Michael P. (2017). Chiefdom Ecodynamics and Muisca Cosmology in the Valley of Leiva, Highland Colombia. Global Journals of Social Science-B 17(3): 21-45; DOI:10.15184/aqy.2016.266

Smyth, Michael P. (2018). Hydraulic Chiefdoms in the Eastern Andean Highlands of Colombia. Heritage 1: 100-121. doi:10.3390/heritage10100082018.

Smyth Michael P., Beach. Timothy S., and Weaver, Eric M. (2016). Climate Change and Chiefdom Ecodynamics in the Eastern Andean Cordillera of Colombia. In Changes in Latitudes, Changes in Attitudes: Transitions and Thresholds throughout Central America and Beyond. Occasional Papers, Number 21, the Center for Archaeological and Tropical Studies. Luisa Aebersold, Samantha M. Krause, eds. University of Texas-Austin, pp. 15-32. 

Triana, Miguel. (1972). La civilización chibcha. The Chibcha civilization. Talleres Gráficos de Carvajal & Cía. Cali, Colombia 1972.

Wells, Greta., Aebersold, Luisa., Beach Timothy S., and Smyth, Michael P. (2015). Preliminary soil erosion and sediment budgets in the Valley of Leyva, Boyacá, Colombia. Poster paper in preparation for the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting in Baltimore, MD. 

Zerda, Liborío. (1972). El Dorado. Tomo II. Biblioteca Banco Popular, Popular Bank Library: Bogotá, Colombia. [1882].

How to cite this paper

Monumental Architecture, Settlement Landscape, and Climate Change at El Infiernito, Colombia

How to cite this paper: Michael P. Smyth. (2021) Monumental Architecture, Settlement Landscape, and Climate Change at El Infiernito, Colombia. Journal of Humanities, Arts and Social Science5(1), 89-110.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/jhass.2021.01.010

Volumes & Issues

Free HPG Newsletters

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from Hill Publishing Group.

Contact us

Hill Publishing Group

8825 53rd Ave

Elmhurst, NY 11373, USA

E-mail: contact@hillpublisher.com

Copyright © 2019 Hill Publishing Group Inc. All Rights Reserved.