Hill Publishing Group | contact@hillpublisher.com

Hill Publishing Group

Location:Home / Journals / International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture /


Extent of Pesticide Use and Application Practices in Small-Scale Farms of Kikome, Makueni County

Date: April 23,2021 |Hits: 189 Download PDF How to cite this paper

Susan N. Dan1,*, Esther N. Kioko2

1Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya.

2Department of Zoology, National Museums of Kenya, Kenya.

*Corresponding author: Susan N. Dan


Pesticides play a key role in agriculture by decreasing crop losses caused by insect pests. They increase crop production translating to national food security and contribute to improvement in human health by controlling disease vectors. Despite their role in controlling disease vectors, pesticides are toxic and have detrimental effects on human health, environment and biodiversity if used improperly. The present work reported findings of an assessment of pesticide use and application practices in Kikome village, Makueni County, Kenya. The major economic activity in this region is farming. Pests are problematic in this region due to high temperature that favors their growth and multiplication compelling farmers to use pesticides in their management. A survey involving 53 respondents, selected by purposive sampling, was carried out to assess pesticide use and application practices. Open ended questionnaires were administered through face to face interviews with the respondents. All the respondents interviewed during the study were using chemical pesticides as the sole method of pest management. Among various chemical compounds in the pesticides used by farmers, pyrethroid (87%), neonicotinoid (69.6%), and carbamate (63%) based pesticides were the most frequently used. Farmers used pesticides more frequently at flowering stage (44%) relative to other phenological stages. Most of the respondents (69.2%) had no access to extension services. This study reported poor farmers’ practices on pesticide use which threatens the diversity and abundance of insect pollinators.


[1] Assessment, M. E. (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being (Vol. 5). Washington, DC: Island press.

[2] FAO. (2008). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. An introduction to the basic concepts of food security. Rome.

[3] Kwapong, P. (2008). African Pollinator Initiative (API). Global Bee Summit, Durban South Africa. In Workshop Presentation.

[4] Nderitu, J., Kasina, M., Nyamasyo, G., and Oronje, M. L. (2007). Effects of insecticide applications on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) pollination in Eastern Kenya. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3(6), 731-734.

[5] Ntow, W. J., Gijzen, H. J., Kelderman, P., and Drechsel, P. (2006). Farmer perceptions and pesticide use practices in vegetable production in Ghana. Pest Management Science: formerly Pesticide Science, 62(4), 356-365.

[6] Liu, Z., Liu, W., Rao, H., Feng, T., Li, C., Wang, C., and Wang, Z. (2012). Determination of some carbamate pesticides in watermelon and tomato samples by dispersive liquid–liquid micro extraction combined with high performance liquid chroma-tography. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. Taylor and Francis publisher. London, 92(5), 571-581.

[7] Anderson, T. D. and Lydy, M. J. (2002). Increased toxicity to invertebrates associated with a mixture of atrazine and organo-phosphate insecticides. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: An International Journal, 21(7), 1507-151.

[8] Whitley, E. and Ball, J. (2002). Statistics review 4: sample size calculations. Critical care, 6(4), 335.

[9] Corp, I. B. M. (2013). IBM SPSS statistics for windows, version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.

[10] Duah, A. (2002). Public health assessment for human exposure to chemicals.

[11] Mengistie, B. T., Mol, A. P., and Oosterveer, P. (2017). Pesticide use practices among smallholder vegetable farmers in Ethiopian Central Rift Valley. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 19(1), 301-324.

[12] de Acedo Liza´rraga, M. S., de Acedo Baquedano, M. S., and Cardelle-Elawar, M. (2007). Factors that affect decision making: Gender and age differences. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 7(3), 381-391.

[13] Ríos-González, A., Jansen, K., and Sánchez-Pérez, H. J. (2013). Pesticide risk perceptions and the differences between farmers and extensionists: Towards a knowledge-in-context model. Environmental research, 124, 43-53.

[14] Karlsson, S. I. (2004). Agricultural pesticides in developing countries. Environment, 46(4), 22.

[15] Hordzi, W. (2015). The Mix of Physics, Chemistry and Biology: Preference and Performance of Distance Education Students in Science. 92

[16] Mutuku, M., Njogu, P., and Nyaga, G. (2014). Assessment of pesticide use and application practices in tomato based Agrosys-tems in Kaliluni sub location, Kathiani District, Kenya. Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology, 16(2).

[17] Okonya, J. S. and Kroschel, J. (2015). A cross-sectional study of pesticide use and knowledge of smallholder potato farmers in Uganda. BioMed research international, 2015.

[18] Jonathan, L., Adam, D., David, H., Benjamin, M., Douglas, S., Richmond, Williamson, R. (2017). Optimizing Pest Management Practices to Conserve Pollinators in Turf Landscapes: Current Practices and Future Research Needs. Integrated Pest Management, 8(1): 18, 1-10.

[19] Abrol, D. P. (2012). Safety of Pollinators. In Pollination Biology (311-352). Springer, Dordrecht.

[20] Jansen, H. C. and Harmsen, J. (2011). Pesticide monitoring in the Central Rift Valley 2009-2010: ecosystems for water in Ethiopia (No. 2083). Alterra.

[21] Damalas, C. A. and Koutroubas, S. D. (2017). Farmers’ training on pesticide use is associated with elevated safety behavior. Toxics, 5(3), 19.

[22] Van den Berg, H., Jiggins, J., (2007). Investing in farmers—the impacts of farmer field schools in relation to integrated pest management. World Development. 35(4), 663e686.

[23] Gautam, S., Schreinemachers, P., Uddin, M. N., and Srinivasan, R. (2017). Impact of training vegetable farmers in Bangladesh in integrated pest management (IPM). Crop protection, 102, 161-169.

How to cite this paper

Extent of Pesticide Use and Application Practices in Small-Scale Farms of Kikome, Makueni County

How to cite this paper: Susan N. Dan, Esther N. Kioko. (2021) Extent of Pesticide Use and Application Practices in Small-Scale Farms of Kikome, Makueni CountyInternational Journal of Food Science and Agriculture5(2), 241-250.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijfsa.2021.06.006

Volumes & Issues

Free HPG Newsletters

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from Hill Publishing Group.

Contact us

Hill Publishing Group

8825 53rd Ave

Elmhurst, NY 11373, USA

E-mail: contact@hillpublisher.com

Copyright © 2019 Hill Publishing Group Inc. All Rights Reserved.