The Educational Review, USA

ISSN Print: 2575-7938 Downloads: 225262 Total View: 3223258
Frequency: monthly ISSN Online: 2575-7946 CODEN: TERUBB
Email: edu@hillpublisher.com
Article http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/er.2022.06.009

Teaching Large Classes in Higher Education: Challenges and Strategies

Japhet E. Lawrence

Faculty of Arts and Education, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia.

*Corresponding author: Japhet E. Lawrence

Published: June 30,2022

Abstract

Higher education around the world are experiencing significant growth in student enrolment, as a result, educators face the daunting challenge of teaching larger classes while improving the quality of instruction and subsequent value delivered to students. Large class can become a daunting task to any instructor who has never taught a large class before and teaching a large group of students can be intimidating for both students and instructors. Although teaching large class is a challenge, but it can offer many opportunities for the instructor to improve his teaching and make it more enjoyable and rewarding for both the instructor and the students. The aim of this study is to identify effective teaching and assessment strategies to address the challenges of teaching in large class environment. It focuses on student engagement as a strategy to address the challenges faced by large class learning environments. By focusing on student engagement and adapting teaching and assessment strategies to promote critical thinking, it is possible to overcome the challenges posed by large class environments into opportunities for effective student learning. The study provides valuable direction for faculty faced with teaching and supporting large-class environments in higher education.

References

Andrade, H. and Du, Y. (2007). Student responses to criteria-referenced self-assessment. Assessment & evaluation in higher education, 32(2), 159-181.

Atkinson, M. (2010). Teaching Large Classes. In Black, C. (Ed.). The Dynamic Classroom: Engaging Students in Higher Education. (57-67). Madison, WI: Atwood Publishing.

Biggs, J. (1999). What the student does: Teaching for enhanced learning. Higher Education Research and Development, 18(1), 57-75. 

Biggs, J. B. (1996). Enhancing teaching through constructive alignment. Higher Education, 32, 347-364. 

Bligh, D. A. (2000). What’s the use of lectures? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bloom, D., Canning, D., and Chan, K. (2005). Higher education and development in Africa. Washington, DC: World Bank. 

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/Resources/278200-1099079877269/547664-1099079956815/HigherEd_Econ_Growth_Africa.pdf (accessed August 10, 2017).

Briggs, S. (2014). The Science of attention: How to capture and hold the attention of easily distracted students. InformED.

Bunce, D., Flens, E., and Neiles, K. (2010). How long can students pay attention in class? A study of student attention decline using clickers. Journal of Chemical Education, 87(12), 1438-1444. 

Campbell, A. (2005). Application of ICT and rubrics to the assessment process where professional judgment is involved: the features of an e-marking tool. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 30(5): 529-37.

Carbone E. and Greenberg, J. (1998). Teaching large classes: Unpacking the problem and responding creatively. In To Improve the Academy, (M. Kaplan, editor). New Forums Press and Professional and Organizational Development Network in Higher Education.

Carbone, E. (1999). Students behaving badly in large classes. New Directions in Teaching and Learning, 77: 35-43. 

Carpenter, J. M. (2006). Effective Teaching Methods for Large Classes. Journal of Family & Consumer Science Education, Vol. 24, No. 2. Retrieved August 31, 2017 http://www.natefacs.org/Pages/v24no2/v24no2Carpenter.pdf. 

Cooper, J. L. and Robinson, P. (2000). The argument for making large classes seem small. New Directives for Teaching and Learning, 81, 5-16. 

Cuseo, J. (2007). The empirical case against large class size: Adverse effects on the teaching, learning, and retention of first-year students. Journal of Faculty Development, 21, 5-21. 

De Caprariis, P., Barman, C., and Magee, P. (2001). Monitoring the benefits of active learning exercises in introductory survey courses in science: An attempt to improve the education of prospective public-school teachers. The Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 1(2), 1-11. 

Ehrenberg, R. G., Brewer, D. J., Gamoran, A., and Willms, J. D. (2001). Class Size and Student Achievement. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, Association for Psychological Science, 2(1), pp. 1-30. 

Exeter, D. J., Ameratunga, S., Ratima, M., Morton, S., Dickson, M., Hsu, D., and Jackson, R. (2010). Student engagement in very large classes: the teachers’ perspective. Studies in Higher Education, Routledge, 35(7), pp. 761-775.  

Exley, K. and Dennick, R. (2004). Giving a lecture – from presenting to teaching. London: Routledge Falmer.

Felder, R. (1997). Beating the numbers game: Effective teaching in large classes. ASEE Annual Conference, Milwaukee, WI. http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/Largeclasses.htm Retrieved September 10, 2017.

Fosnot, C. (1989). Enquiring teachers, enquiring learners. New York: Teachers College Press.

Gibbs, G. (1992). Control and independence. In Teaching large classes in higher education: How to maintain quality with reduced resources, Edited by: Gibbs, G. and Jenkins, A. 37-59. London: Kogan Page.

Gibbs, G. and Jenkins, A. (1992). Teaching large classes in higher education. London: Kogan.

Gleason, B. L., Peeters, M. J., Resman-Targoff, B. H., Karr, S., McBane, S., Kelley, K., Thomas, T., and Denetclaw, T. H. (2011). An Active-Learning Strategies Primer for Achieving Ability-Based Educational Outcomes. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, Volume 75, Issue 9. Retrieved February 2, 2018 http://www.ajpe.org/doi/full/10.5688/ajpe759186. 

Halpern, D. F. and Hakel, M. D. (2004). The University and Beyond: Teaching for Long-Term Retention and Transfer. http://survey.csuprojects.org/uploads/WV/q2/WVq2sNZ_GPpkbnEEs0rlSQ/Halpern-and-Hakel---Teaching-for-Transfer.pdf.

Hepplestone, S., Holden, G, Irwin, B, Parkin, H. J., and Thorpe, L. (2011). Using technology to encourage student engagement with feedback: a literature review. Research in Learning Technology, 19, no. 2: 115-25. 

Hornsby, D. J. and Osman, R. (2014). Massification in higher education: large classes and student learning. Higher Education. Retrieved September 15, 2017 

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/272004422_Massification_in_higher_education_Large_classes_and_student_learning.  

Hornsby, D. J., Osman, R., and De Matos-Ala, J. (2013). Large-Class Pedagogy – Interdisciplinary perspectives for quality higher education. Stellenbosch: SUN Media. 

Huba, M. E. and Freed, J. E. (2000). Learner-centred assessment on college campuses: shifting the focus from teaching to learning. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 

Hunt, D., Haidet, P., Coverdale, J., and Richards, B. (2003). The effect of using team learning in an evidence-based medicine course for medical students. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 15(2), 131-139. 

Ives, S. M. (2000). A Survival Handbook for Teaching Large Classes. UNC Charlotte Faculty Centre for Teaching. Retrieved September 28, 2017 http://teaching.uncc.edu/learning-resources/articles-books/best-practice/large-classes/large-class-handbook. 

Jungic, V, Kent, D., and Menz, P. (2006). Teaching large classes: Three instructors, one experience. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 1, 1-15.

Kerr, A. (2011). Teaching and Learning in Large Classes at Ontario Universities: An Exploratory Study. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario. Retrieved March 28, 2018 

http://www.heqco.ca/SiteCollectionDocuments/Teaching%20and%20Learning%20in%20Large%20Classes%20ENG.pdf.

Kirkwood, C. K. (2013). Teaching and engaging students in large classes. Mental Health Clinician, Vol. 2, No. 10, pp. 322-324. Retrieved January 30, 2018 https://doi.org/10.9740/mhc.n143601. 

Laurillard, D. M. (2002). Rethinking university teaching: A conversational framework for the effective use of learning technologies. London: Routledge.

Lipinge, S. M. (2013). Challenges of Large Class Teaching at the University: Implications for Continuous Staff Development Activities. Retrieved March 20, 2018 http://people.math.sfu.ca/~vjungic/Lipinge.pdf.

Lynch, R. P. and Pappas, E. (2017). A Model for Teaching Large Classes: Facilitating a “Small Class Feel. International Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 6, No. 2, p. 199. Retrieved April 3, 2018 https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v6n2p199.

MacGregor, J., Cooper, J. L., Smith, K. A., and Robinson, P. (2000). Editor’s notes. In J. MacGregor, J. L. Cooper, K.A. Smith & Robinson, P. (Eds.), Strategies for energizing large classes: From small groups to learning communities. New Directions for teaching and learning, no. 81. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

McInnis, C., James, R., and Hartley, R. (2000). Trends in the first-year experience in Australian universities. Canberra: AGPS.

McKeachie, W. (1990). Research on College Teaching: The Historical Background. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(2), 189-200. 

McKeachie, W. J. (1980). Class Size, Large Classes and Multiple Sections, Academe. American Association of University Professors, 66(1), pp. 24-27. 

McKeachie, W. J. (1999). McKeachie’s Teaching Tips: Strategies, Research, and Theory for College and University Teachers. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

McKeachie, W. J. (2002). Extracts from Teaching tips: strategies, research and theory for college and university teachers, Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Mertler, C. A. (2001). Designing scoring rubrics for your classroom. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 7(25). Retrieved January 15, 2018 http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=7&n=25. 

Meyers, N. and Nulty, D. (2002). Assessment and student engagement. Learning communities and assessment cultures conference organized by the EARLI special interest group on assessment and evaluation. University of Northumbria. Retrieved September 15, 2017 http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/00002240.htm. 

Miller, J. and Rebelein, R. (2011). Research on the Effectiveness of Non-Traditional Pedagogies. The International Handbook on Teaching and Learning Economics. Retrieved September 18, 2017 https://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/interactive/refs.html. 

Mulryan-Kyne, C. (2010). Teaching Large Classes at College and University Level: Challenges and Opportunities, Teaching in Higher Education, Routledge, 15(2), pp. 175-185.

Nilson, L. B. (2010) Teaching at its best: A Research-Based Resource for College Instructors. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons. 

OECD. (2008). Tertiary Education for the Knowledge Society-OECD Thematic Review of Tertiary Education: Synthesis Report http://www.oecd.org/education/skills-beyond-school/40345176.pdf (accessed September 30, 2017).

Panitz, T. (1996). Collaborative versus Cooperative Learning - A Comparison of the Two Concepts which will help us understand the underlying nature of Interactive Learning. Retrieved March 10, 2018 http://home.capecod.net/~tpanitz/tedsarticles /coopdefinition.htm. 

Papo, W. D. (1999). Large class teaching: is it a problem? College Student Journal, 33(3), 354-357.

Perkins, D. and Saris, N. (2001). A jigsaw classroom technique for undergraduate statistics courses. Teaching of Psychology, 28(2), 111-113.

Prince, M., (2004). Does Active Learning Work? A Review of the Research. Journal of Engineering Education, pp. 1-9.

Prosser, M. and Trigwell, K. (2014). Qualitative variation in approaches to university teaching and learning in large first-year classes. Higher Education: The International Journal for Higher Education and Educational Planning, 67, 783-795. Retrieved March 15, 2018 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-013-9690-0.

Reddy, Y. M. and Andrade, H. (2010). A review of rubric use in higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35(4): 435-48.  

Saroyan, A. and Snell, L. S. (1997). Variations in Lecturing Styles. Higher Education, v. 33 n. 1 pp. 85-104. Retrieved September 18, 2017 https://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/interactive/refs.html. 

Seymour, D. (2005). Learning Outcomes and Assessment: Developing assessment criteria for Masters-level dissertations. Brookes eJournal of Learning and Teaching 1, no. 2: 1-8. Retrieved January 18, 2018 http://bejlt.brookes.ac.uk/paper/learning-out comes-and-assessment-developing-assessment-criteria-for-masters-level-dissertations/.

Stanley, C. and Porter, E. (Eds.). (2002). Engaging large classes: Strategies and techniques for college faculty. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing Company.

Stevens, D. D. and Levi, A. J. (2005). Levelling the field: Using rubrics to achieve greater equity in teaching and assessment. Essays on Teaching Excellence, Professional and Organizational Development Network in Higher Education, 17(1). Retrieved January 15, 2018 http://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1087&context=edu_fac.

Svinicki, M. and McKeachie, W. (2010). McKeachie’s Teaching Tips: Strategies, Research and Theory for College and University Teachers. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning Inc. 

Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving College: Rethinking the Causes and Cures for Student Attrition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 

Twigg, C. A. (2003). Improving Quality and reducing cost: Designs for effective learning. Change, 35(4), 23-29.

Ward, A. and Jenkins, A. (1992). The problems of learning and teaching in large classes. In Teaching large classes in higher education: How to maintain quality with reduced resources (Editors: G. Gibbs & A. Jenkins). London: Kogan Page.

Weaver, R. R., and Qi, J. (2005). Classroom organization and participation: College students’ perceptions. The Journal of Higher Education, 76(5), 570-601. https://doi.org/10.1353/jhe.2005.0038.

Weimer, M. (2010). Taking Stock of What Faculty Know About Learning. In Christensen Hughes, J. & Mighty, J. (Eds.). Taking Stock: Research on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (81-93). Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Wenzel, T. J. (1999). The lecture as a learning device. Analytical Chemistry, v. 71, pp. 817A-819A. Retrieved September 8, 2017 https://serc.carleton.edu/resources/1312.html. 

White, E. (2012). Are You Assessment Literate? Some Fundamental Questions Regarding Effective Classroom-based Assessment. Retrieved January 18, 2018 http://jaltcue.org/files/OnCUE/OCJ3-1articles/OCJ3-1-White-pp3-25.pdf.

Winestone, N. and Millard, L. (2012). Reframing perceptions of the lecture from challenges to opportunities: Embedding active learning and formative assessment into the teaching of large classes. Psychology Teaching Review, 18(2), 31-41.

World Bank. (2002). Constructing knowledge societies: New challenges for tertiary education. Washington, DC: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank. 

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTAFRREGTOPTEIA/Resources/Constructing_Knowledge_Societies.pdf (accessed September 30, 2017).

Yoder, J. and Hochevar, C. (2005). Encouraging active learning can improve students’ performance on examinations. Teaching of Psychology, 32(2), 91-95.

How to cite this paper

Teaching Large Classes in Higher Education: Challenges and Strategies

How to cite this paper: Japhet E. Lawrence. (2022). Teaching Large Classes in Higher Education: Challenges and Strategies. The Educational Review, USA6(6), 251-262.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/er.2022.06.009